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Sumerian Cuneiform Dictionary Mugsar Online

Note: May be slow loading all cuneiform signs - dictionary packed into single page for easier browsing.
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mugsar-immortality-sponsorship-king

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Status: Mugsar17, 12017CT 12iii

Contents | Main Listings

Mugsar QuickFinder: 1-2 | 3-5 | 6-10 | 10-20 | 20+

Mugsar 4-Way | Reference | Appendix

Benefactors-Sponsors | Specials | NEIS | Sitemap

Academia.edu | Downloads | Project Home Invitation

mugsar3

MAJOR LEMMA mmm

AB 1200A AB sea window ABZU cosmic sea | AB2 12016 AB2 cow | AL 12020 AL tool | DAG 12056 DAG dwelling | E2 1208D E2 house temple house | EN 12097 EN lord lord | EZEN 120A1 EZEN sing song epic festival | GA2 120B7 GA2 MAL PISAN basket basket | HI 1212D HI mix; good | KA 12157 KA INIM word thing DU DUG4 speak ZU2 tooth mouth / perform | LAGAB 121B8 LAGAB block stump encircle | LU2 121FD LU2 man - engine of spaceship man | LUGAL 12217 LUGAL King in a spaceship man king | NINDA212252 NINDA2 bread food price | NUNUZ 1226D NUNUZ ERIN2 RIN pearl qq egg (shape) | SAG 12295 SAG head SAG GIG-GA head | SHA3 (ŠA3) 122AE SHA TIBULA heart heart | SHIM 122C6 SHIM scent beer / substance | UD 12313 UD day time UTU sun sun / day | URU 12337 URU city civilization time

A | AB | AB2 | AL | AN | ASH | BA | BI | DA | DAG | DU | E | E2 | EN | EZEN | GA | GA2 | GI | GIR3 | GISH | GU2 | HA | HI | HUB2 | I | IG | IM | KA | KAD | KI | KU | LA | LAGAB | LAL | LU2 | LUGAL | MA | MUSH | NA | NINDA2 | NUN | NUNUZ | PA | PI | PIRIG | RA | SA | SAG | SHA3 | SHE | SHIM | TA | TAG | U | UD | UM | UR2 | URU | USH | ZA | ZUM

sponsor-mugsar-quickfinder

Mugsar QuickFinder

*1-2*| 3-5 : B | 6-10 : B | 10-20 : B | 20+ | QF Notes | [vvv]

12038 12038 ASH 1 one 12079 12079 DISH 1 one 1230B 1230B U vowel 10 122B9 122B9 SHAR2 big black dot 12039 12039 ASH ZISA TENU 1203A 1203A ASH KABA TENU 120F5 120F5 GAM down below 12300 12300 TIL BAD death cf 12041 122D9 122D9 SHU2 12357 12357 USH2 12142 12142 IDIM 1202B 1202B AMAR ZUR calf young bull 12226 12226 MASH half MASHDA twin -cross- 1227D 1227D PAP KUR2 unit capacity vessel 12228 12228 ME I am to be copula 12047 12047 BAR half 121FA 121FA LISH DILI2 spoon bowl 121F2 121F2 LAL LA2 bind 122F0 122F0 MIN TAB 2 two 1222B 1222B MIN 2 two

*3-5*

1203C 1203C ESH 3 three 1230D 1230D U ESH 30 thirty SIN moon 12310 v 12310 U 121B3 121B3 KUR mountain land 12366 12366 ZIB 12367 12367 ZIB KABA tenu 1236D 1236D ZUBUR 12357 12357 USH2 12041 12041 BAD death 12000 12000 A vowel water 1227A 1227A PAN GIDRU sceptre UGULA overseer GARZA office 12111 12111 GISH GESH tree wood 12261 12261 NU not nonexistent 122E1 122E1 SIILA3 122FB 122FB TAR cut uQQ uQQ SHA2 NIG syllabary sh- 1235D 1235D LIMMU5 4 four 121F9 121F9 LIMMU2 4 four number 1235E 1235E ZA 1209F 1209F ERIN2 PIRIG people troops 1219C 1219C KASKAL KAS RASH journey DANNA mile 12190 12190 KAD2 12191 12191 KAD3 1202D 1202D AN sky god 1212C 1212C HAL 1227C 1227C PAN 12036 12036 ARKAB 12040 v 12040 BA porridge 121EC 121EC LAGAR sharman120F0 120F0 GAD 121B0 121B0 KUL seed offspring 122FE 122FE TI life rib 122E5 122E5 SUD2 12146 v 12146 IGI SHI LIM eye vision 1227F v 1227F PI TAL2 GESHTU ear 120FB 120FB GAR NINDA NIG2 thing 122E9 122E9 SUR 1227B 1227B PAD SUK piece 1202B 1202B AMAR ZUR calf young bull 12195 12195 KAK 122D6 122D6 SHITA 1224C 1224C NI ZAL oil fat 12155 12155 IR ask 12307 12307 TUK anger angry 1211E v 1211E GUD GU4 ox cow 122EB 122EB TA [cuneus] 122A9 122A9 SAL MUG GALA MUNUS MUGSAR 121B5 121B5 KUSH2 cum cunt 1206E 1206E DAM wife 12096 12096 EL SIKIL pure cuneus 122AA 122AA SAL 1236E 1236E ZUM |B*6-10*| 12016 v 12016 AB2 121A8 121A8 KISIM5 1224F v 1224F NIM DIH3 thorny plant NIN-LAL3 bee ELAM [dia5] 1212D v 1212D HI 12312 12312 UB 1202A 1202A ALEPH 12313 v 12313 UD day time UTU sun 1226D v 1226D NUNUZ ERIN2 RIN pearl qq [VH5] 1207A 1207A DU to go GUB stand 1207D 1207D DU 12137 12137 HU MUSHEN bird 12291 12291 RI 12225 12225 MAR 12125 12125 GUR capacity unit 300 litres 12337 v 12337 URU city 122DD 122DD SIG thin narrow 122DB 122DB SI horn 12328 12328  UR dog 12220 v 12220 MA 12223 12223 MA2 12351 v 12351 USH NITA male man 120B7 v 120B7 GA2 MAL PISAN basket 12128 12128 GURUSH male worker 12197 12197 KAL strong 12239 12239 INANNA goddess 1200A v 1200A AB sea window ABZU121AF121AF KU7 sweet 12252 v 12252 NINDA2 bread food 12123 v 12123 GUM 1203E 1203E ASH2 121A6 121A6 KISAL 12156 12156 ISH 122D7 122D7 SHU hand uQQ uQQ SU4 SI4 to be red brown 184x 1204D 1204D BU GID2 long length 12077 12077 DIN 1222E 1222E MUG [square5]121B8v 121B8 LAGAB block stump 121E5 v 121E5 LAGAB PU GIGIR wagon TUL source 12089 12089 DUR2 121AA 121AA KU DUR2 TUKUL TUSH sit seated 120FE 120FE GESHTIN GISH vine 12336 12336 UR13 1213F 1213F I vowel 5 five numeric

*6-10* | 1-2 | 3-5 | | 10-20 | 20-40 | *UP*B

1219A 1219A KAM2 122B8 122B8 SHAB6 122C2 122C2 SHESHLAM uQQ uQQ AYA father 561x 1212912129 HA KU6 fish1208A 1208A E vowel 1202B 1202B AMAR ZUR calf young bull 12337 12337 URU city 12153 12153 IMIN 9 nine12317 12317 UD [dia9]12072 12072 DI right justice 122AE 122AE SHA TIBULA heart 122D3 122D3 SHIR testicles 12227 12227 MASH2 family relative 121A0 v 121A0 KI earth KIENGIR 1212F v 1212F HI AR3 KIN MUR HAR ring HUR thick HUR-SAG mountain 121B2 121B2 KUN tail 122FC 122FC TE cheek 1214E v 1214E IM 1224E 1224E NI2 IM clay TU15 wind ISKUR storm god 12262 12262 NU11 120F8 uQQ kar2 insult slander 55x 1230912309 DUMU son12334 12334 UR4 12034 12034 ARAD servant slave 12035 12035 ARAD 1211E v 1211E GUD GU4 ox cow 122EB 122EB TA 1230C 1230C U GUD 12110 12110 GISAL 120F4 120F4 GALAM SUKUD height 12020 v 12020 AL 122AD 122AD SHA 12138 12138 HUB2 left 12244 12244 NAGAR carpenter 12108 12108 GIR2 GISH knife dagger UL-GAL sword 12109 12109 GIR2 gunu 12311 12311 U2 122EC 122EC TA asterisk 12127 12127 GURUN fruit 122E4 122E4 SUD pull 12085 12085 DUN3 shekel 12292 12292 RU SHUB fall defeat 12322 12322 UMBIN wheel s 1232B v 1232B UR2 phallus 2 12231 12231 MURGU2 122DE 122DE SIG4 clay brick MURGU shoulder 122DA 122DA SHUBUR SHA pig 12294 12294 SAG SAG head 12295 v 12295 SAG head SAG GIG-GA 12076 12076 DIM2 12252 v 12252 NINDA2 bread food 1236B 1236B ZU5 121AF 121AF KU7 sweet 12014 12014 AB URUK 12260 12260 NISAG middle 1231912319 murub6 cuneus rear [square9] 1234F 1234F URUDA 122AC 122AC SAR write DUBSAR 121FB v 121FB LU DIB DAB grasp UDU sheep 121C9 121C9 LAGAB 12306 12306 TUG2 garment SHE3 towards 12247 12247 NAM2 |B*1-2*| 12073 12073 DIB DAB 12122 12122 GUL SUN2 smite break 12096 12096 EL SIKIL pure cuneus 1206E 1206E DAM wife 1236E 1236E ZUM 12216 12216 LU3 120F2 120F2 GAL big great 12245 12245 NAM NUTILLU 1203D 1203D ASH 1203F 1203F ASHGAB leather 122FA 122FA TAK4 12263 v 12263 NUN lard 1221B 1221B LUH SUKKAL bureaucrat 12293 12293 SA sinew muscle 122C3 122C3 SHID SHIT SANGA SAGGA SANGU SAGA8 official of temple [spindle] 12116 12116 GU 12054 12054 BUR2 12244 12244 NAGAR carpenter 12336 12336 UR13 122C0 122C0 SHESH brother 12361 12361 ZAMx 121B0 121B0 KUL seed offspring 12044 12044 BAL GISH spindle 1222C 1222C MU year 1222D 1222D MU 12051 12051 BULUG 1207D 1207D DU 12049 12049 BI PI KASH open beer 120FC 120FC GAR3 120B5 120B5 GA suckling young milk cow 120FD 120FD GASHAN unit of area GESTIN lady mistress 1228F 1228F strike 12074 12074 DIM 1223E 1223E NA 12118 v 12118 GU2 neck 12262 12262 NU11 12224 12224 MAH great 121FD v121FD LU2 man - engine of spaceship12217 v 12217 LUGAL King in a spaceship man 120A1v 120A1 EZEN sing song epic 12248 v 12248 NE 1226D v 1226D NUNUZ ERIN2 RIN pearl qq [gate] 12056 v 12056 DAG 1208D v 1208D E2 house temple 1218D 1218D KA 121A6 121A6 KISAL 122D7 122D7 SHU hand 12229 12229 MES cylinder seal sealed tablet black Gilgamesh 12369 12369 ZIZ2 wheat work team 120F7 120F7 GAN2 12141 12141 IB 121A4 121A4 KID field 1213E 1213E HUL2 cucumber 12055 12055 DA eg DA-RI2 eternal 1231C 1231C UDUG 1236A 1236A ZU know cf 1200A ABZU abyss 122E2 122E2 SUKUSH hide fur internal organs 121F4 121F4 LAM 12107 12107 GIDIM SUSANA-IS spirit ghost 12365 12365 ZI13 120A0 120A0 ESH2 GIR native KIENGIR Sumerian 12368 12368 ZIG lower body 12053 12053 BUR 12100 12100 GI reed stylus cane tube 4900x 12104 12104 GI4 turn return change 1201C 1201C AD1222A 1222A MI GE6 black sag gig-ga 1235A 1235A UZ3

*10-20* | 1-2 | 3-5 | 6-10 | | 20-40 | *UP*B

12042 12042 BAG3 122BA v 122BA SHE NIGA NIGU barley 122E7 122E7 SUM give -etym sum add total 120EE & 12083 120EE GABA 12363 12363 ZI ZID self life live ZI-GA attack 121AD 121AD KU4 121F8 121F8 LIL idiot 12154 12154 IN 121F7 121F7 LI 12240 12240 NAGA NAG2 NISABA tornado 122D2 122D2 SHINIG 12301 12301 TIR forest 1230512305 TU TUR DOVE1230F 1230F U 1222D 1222D MU 12246 12246 NAMTAR destiny 12082 12082 DUGUD heavy important 1202F 1202F AN MUL star Tara 12097 v 12097 EN lord 12359 12359 UTUKI 12290 12290 RAB 12362 12362 ZE2 12232 12232 MUSH snake 12033 12033 APIN plow ENGAR  farmer uQQ uQQ KUSH2 kusu tired troubled 149x 12157 v 12157 KA INIM word thing DU DUG4 speak ZU2 tooth 12086 12086 DUN3 121B7 121B7 LA 1218F 1218F KAB GAB2 121A5 121A5 KIN work procedure sickle 12145 12145 IG GAL2 door exist qq 12192 12192 KAD4 12193 12193 KAD5 122DE 122DE SIG4 clay brick MURGU shoulder 1221D 1221D LUM 12358 12358 USHUM serpent 121B2 121B2 KUN tail 1224E 1224E NI2 IM clay TU15 wind ISKUR storm god 1214E1214E IM121F1 121F1 LAHSHU 12217 12217 LUGAL King in a spaceship man 12323 12323 UNMUM SIMUG metalworker 12104 12104 GI4 turn return change 1218D 1218D KA 122EA 122EA SUR91222912229 MES cylinder seal sealed tablet black Gilgamesh 1231D v 1231D UM reed rope 1207E 1207E DUB clay tablet DUBSAR 1201D 1201D AK to do basic verb 1201E 1201E AK 12084 12084 DUN |B*1-2*| 1221C 1221C LUL NAR musician 1210A 1210A GIR3 PIRIG foot 12308 12308 TUM 12035 12035 ARAD 120F6 120F6 GAH bear young HO-GAN 122C6 v 122C6 SHIM scent 1206F 1206F DAR 12071 12071 DARA4 red brown blood 122E0 122E0 SIK2 SIKI wool 12360 12360 ZAG ZA3 border 122F3 122F3 TAG 12075 12075 DIM 12335 12335 URI 12046 12046 BALAG DUB2 harp 1202C 1202C AMAR sacrifice ritual 120EE & 12083 12083 DUGUD loose TUH DU GABA breast 12260 12260 NISAG middle 12258 v 12258 NINDA2 1236B 1236B ZU5 1219B 1219B KAM4 1223F 1223F NA2 NU2 bed 12032 12032 ANSHE donkey horse 121C7 v 121C7 LAGAB 122AA 122AA SAL 12216 12216 LU3 122AC 122AC SAR write DUBSAR 12080 12080 DUB 121B6 121B6 KWU318 12326 12326 UN UG3 people ug sag gig-ga 12088 12088 DUN SUDUN SUDUL yoke 121AC 121AC KU3 KUG pure GUSHKIN gold 122AB 122AB SANGA2 12193 12193 KAD5 122E8 122E8 SUMASH 122E6 122E6 SUHUR head hair 1204E v 1204E BU 1214B 1214B IL 12095 12095 EGIR after 121A7 121A7 KISH totality world 1227E 1227E PESH2 PISH mouse 12094 12094 EDIN 12322 12322 UMBIN wheel s 12070 12070 DARA3 1214D 1214D IL2 12103 12103 GI 1207F 1207F DUB

*20-40* | *UP*B

12301 12301 TIR forest 122C1 122C1 SHESH2 122B7 122B7 SHA6 122BE 122BE SHEG9 122BF 122BF SHEN PISAN bucket 12009 12009 A2 ID TI8 time 1223F 1223F NA2 NU2 bed 12029 12029 ALAN statue icon 1209E 1209E EREN cedar 12126 12126 GUR7 1228A v 1228A PIRIG pirig lion 12037 12037 ASAL2 1214D 1214D IL2 12043 12043 BARHAR2 12048 12048 BARA21219F 1219F KESH2 12274 v 12274 NUNUZ1205B v 1205B DAG UBUR female breast nipple 1235C 1235C UZU flesh 12356 12356 USHx 12230 12230 MUNSUB hair

*40+*

12031 12031 AN cross enlarged

QFNotes Excl repetitive variants (base sign – usu on left) = v
duplicate where shapes are similar; 340 entries
square5 | square9 | diamond5 | dia9 | VH5 | gate | spindle

1-2 | 3-5 : B | 6-10 : B | 10-20 : B | 20-40

4-Way | Very Common Signs | Major Lemma

ttt

CONTENTS

[TOC spread] | Sitemap

MAJOR LEMMA | Mugsar QuickFinder

eBook Cover | Title Page | Dedication | Reproduction / Contact | File format convert tips | Internet Archive Downloads | eBook Description | Tablet 1 | Supporters - Immortality: iPhone vs Mugsar? - Sponsor Signs - Finders Commissions - HQ - MugsarFest - Careers - Guest Speaker - Merchandising - GameApp - IPO - Foundation - Tagline - education=edub | How to use

MAIN LISTINGS | Enheduanna - earliest known writer was female | Wheel Invention

Mugsar 4-WAY | Sumerians - Kings of the Earthlings | Sumerians called themselves "black-headed people" | There in the tablets, "black people" are the "city-dwellers" and"rulers of Sumer" | First Professors are Black! | Oldest written love stories | Inana and the Seven Cosmic Powers of her Loincloth | Inana loves Dumuzi | Gudea Cylinders | Very Common Signs

REFERENCE & LINKS | Civilization Time | Unicode Sign closeup | PSD | Sumer Periods | ETCSL | List of determinatives | CDP - closeups of actual signs on tablets | Basics / Grammar | Proto Cuneiform Signs (cdli) | LAK (proto list)

TRUE ETYMOLOGY | Proto Language Monosyllables PLM

APPENDIX | Abbreviations / Notations | How to write on clay | Basic Cuneus | Numbers | Vowels | Pronunciation | Syllabary A-Z: Write or tattoo your name in Sumerian! | Foxvog's Basics | Copula | Tablet Examples | Project Home Invitation | Course Modules | Mugsar Immortal Benefactors Register (MIBR) | Google Search Box | [END]

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[TOC spread]

MAJOR LEMMA

Mugsar QuickFinder

eBook Cover

Title Page

Dedication

Reproduction

Mugsar file format convert tips

Internet Archive Downloads

eBook Description

Tablet 1

Supporters

Immortality: iPhone vs Mugsar?

Sponsor Signs

Finders Commissions

HQ

MugsarFest

Careers

Guest Speaker

Merchandising

GameApp

IPO

Foundation

Tagline

education=edub

How to use

MAIN LISTINGS

Enheduanna – earliest known author and poet was female

Invention of the Wheel

Mugsar 4-WAY

Sumerians – Kings of the Earthlings

Sumerians called themselves “black-headed people”

There in the tablets, “black people” are the “city-dwellers” and”rulers of Sumer”

First Professors are Black!

Oldest written love stories

Inana and the Seven Cosmic Powers of her Loincloth

Inana loves Dumuzi

Gudea Cylinders

Very Common Signs

REFERENCE & LINKS

Civilization Time

Unicode Sign closeup

PSD

Sumer Periods

ETCSL

List of determinatives

CDP – closeups of actual signs on tablets

Basics / Grammar

Proto Cuneiform Signs (cdli)

LAK (proto list)

TRUE ETYMOLOGY

Proto Language Monosyllables PLM

APPENDIX

Abbreviations / Notations

How to write on clay

Basic Cuneus

Numbers

Vowels a e i u

Pronunciation

Syllabary A-Z: Write or tattoo your name in Sumerian!

Foxvog's Basics

Copula

Tablet Examples

Project Home Invitation

Course Modules

Mugsar Immortal Benefactors Register (MIBR)

Sitemap

Google Search Box

[END]

Cover

.Sumerian Cuneiform English Dictionary Cover 12013CT v17 200.

Title Page

Sumerian Cuneiform

English Dictionary

Mugsar

Ed. Peter & Tara Hogan

12013 CT

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.Online Sumerian Cuneiform English Dictionary MUGSAR logo 25xii
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Dedication

.Mugsar Dedication Enheduanna.

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Reproduction

Copy Peter & Tara Hogan 12013CT

Copy for non-commercial purposes. Where relevant give proper attribution, see Reference section.
It's all part of the unearthing process, Civilization Time, belongs to all of us, especially when the subject matter is the displaced first one – can you just see that black Kiengi designing that first tablet some 5400 years ago.

Oh, and don"t forget the all important step 1, Write or tatto your name in cuneiform! This is ours:

Peter Hogan Tara Hogan cuneiform dubsar

peter-hogan-mugsar-founder


Mugsar Founder
sumeriancuneiformdictionary@gmail.com
PO Box 1 Potts Point NSW 1335 (Sydney) Australia

mugsar contact 3a

twitter-button twitter-button  pinterestr-button  facebook-button  academia-button31

Contents | Top

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MUGSAR file format convert tips

Kindle was our favoured eReader (faulty design won't recharge). Anyway, just send (to your username@kindle.com) our Word .docx file (you can find the latest upload here) "as is" [Do NOT add "convert" to the subject line, it stuffs it up] straight to your Kindle – it comes up just perfect. Kindle now uses .kf8 cf. the old .azw / mobi
PDF – Though still very common for now, seems to have many limitations, esp as a source format for conversion – Calibre FAQs say it's a crap format: “In order of decreasing preference: LIT, MOBI, AZW, EPUB, AZW3, FB2, DOCX, HTML, PRC, ODT, RTF, PDB, TXT, PDF”
ePUB – The most common eReader format is ePUB, and even better, it's "open source". MUGSAR ePUB version is now available from the Internet Archive.
Free Convert Software – The most popular seems to be Calibre. Though some say that you can"t use .docx as a source format, it now does. The new Kindle .kf8 is not yet an acceptable format, but if .docx works that's all you need. | calibre-ebook.com/download_windows | manual.calibre-ebook.com/conversion | browsingrhino.com…calibres-great-conversion-of-docx-into-ebooks | Main steps: 1. Add books [select .docx file] 2. Convert books [Some important selections] Output format: EPUB [or pref.] Page Setup: Default Output Profile [or pref.] 3. On job completion (how long does Calibre take to convert? time varies 10-30 mins+ [may appear to be stuck on all that micro$oft crap at 47 or 67%]) Right click – save to disk single file – then select EPUB only Then that ePUB is your best source for other formats. But first load it in, right click and use the Editor to fix up any bugs. As for converting to mobi, found Calibre far superior to Kindlegen (or Kindle for PC) - Kindlegen doubled the file size to over 16mb, bloated the graphics, some now not fitting the screen; and lost the TOC and cover. Calibre came up great, and actually reduced the file size. Online Convert - 2epub.com

Sumerian Cuneiform Dictionary MUGSAR ebook viewer 30

HTML and all the Mugsar sign jpg graphics ZIP - now at the Internet Archive here Note: The un-zipped htm file may still be compressed to around 260 Kb just moving it to another folder will un-compress (to about 1700Kb; jpg items 6.9Mb unzipped)

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Internet Archive Downloads

Internet_Archive

All our Internet Archive downloads

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eBook Description

The Mugsar is the only standalone Sumerian Cuneiform Dictionary for the founders of 'educaton', including the etymology of the word itself, 5000 years ago, in the world. Compare our world ranking already without any funding at academia.edu (see elite professors comparison study). The Mugsar has all the innate qualities that give sponsors a genuine shot at immortality, plus everything on one page exploring - download capability - don’t need to be connected to the internet as is the case for cumbersome script-driven databases.

Nothing comes close to the nifty Mugsar:

1230B flipped2 The unique Mugsar 4-Way

1. unicode 2. sign 3. lemma 4. translation

All together in each listing. At elite university sites it's all over the place. None give unicodes and their translations are superficial / computer generated.

1230B flipped2 The real nifty part, the Mugsar QuickFinder

1230B flipped2 Specially designed for small "tablet" screens that may not be able to display cuneiform fonts.

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The first great civilization (fl c. 6600CT – 8000CT) were the Sumerians – “ki.en.gi”, who were black ("sag gig.ga") to boot! For the enlightened Sumer is aptly termed the "cradle of civilization".

Much has been plagiarized from them without due attribution, not just the wheel, writing, law, but even true etymologies – the real origins of so many English words like "abzu" = abyss, not to mention "shekel", the Hebrew term for money — some would have us believe that everything starts with the Greeks and Romans, world champion plagiarizers themselves. Our libraries may as well forget the non-fiction / history section – just put it all under fiction. How some can relegate this great civilization to what's conjured by terms like “ancient” and “BC”. It's not going backwards, they come first at about 6600CT.

Sumer to Greece plagiarism

Tablet 1

mugsar tablet 1 introduction

Inspiration for all this came out of not being able to find a Sumerian cuneiform sign list with unicode, lemma and translation. There are some amazing dedicated websites and books produced by some amazing academes {missing fragment} …from the experience of living in Japan and studying kan-ji, it became obvious that you have to have the logogram, reading and translation all together. Just reading and translation is useless. And now of course linking everything is the unicode – see our unique "Mugsar 4-Way", an example:

Inana and the Seven Cosmic Powers of her Loincloth

u4-/ba nin-gu10 an\ mu-un-nigin2-na-ta

Once, my dear lady heaven roamed around

cpd

cpd

1222C

1202D

cpd

cpd UD-BA day halved noon qq

cpd NIN lady mistress 1467x

1222C MU year

1202D AN sky god

cpd mu-un-nigin2-na-ta roam around 121B8 1222C name 12326 people 1223E incense 122EB much

ud-ba

nin

- gu10

an\

/mu-un-nigin2-na-ta\

Once

12313 UD day + 12040 BA open halve

lady,

mistress

122A9

MUG +

12306 TUG2 garment

"dear one" Determ. / honor.

heaven

roamed around

1222C MU name + 12326 UN (KALAM = Sumer) + 121B8 nigin2 encircle + 1223E NA incense + 122EB TA much

Some well funded universities like Oxford's Faculty of Oriental Studies ETCSL et al have everything separated, don"t give unicodes at all, and for the sign they link off to PSD (University of Pennsylvania) where it is often not clear which is the relevant one. And their translations are superficial, probably computer generated. When you work with the actual cuneiform signs, rather than just impotent readings using our boring English phonetic script, you start to see that the scribes were not just telling a story, but literally painting the scene.

When we start going deeper than such misleading translations it becomes very revealing. It's not just that to the chagrin of some, that the Sumerians keep referring to themselves as black, there's a sign in particular that clearly tells us that the very first professors, scholars, experts, master craftsman, the ones who could write and teach, were black…

1222A MI gig2 black Inana black braided hair 7400CT

…and "um-mi-a" is not just of a more recent period of only 4000 years ago (Ur III) it goes way back to over 5000 years ago (ED IIIb) [a good 2000 years before the Greeks et al]:

cpd um-mi-a first professors are BLACK psd 14 over 5000ya

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cpd digir dim3-mi-ir black god

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Gilgamesh, the hero of oldest written epic is also black cpd BIL-GA-MESH black hero Gilgamesh BIL.GA.MEŠ (Sumerian: Bilgamesh [cf. Billjim!]; Akkad.: Gilgamesh) [1224B BIL2burnt + 120B5 GA young (bull) + 12229 mes (meš) black hero (next on the sign list is the more common black sign 1222A 1222A MI black s MI; and 1207E dub 1207E DUB clay tablet DUBSAR s able to write = power connotation)]

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And not only were the first scholars black, the earliest known author and poet was female (and most likely black), Enheduanna.

It's even more bewildering when you see someone like Jeremy Black ("1951-"2004) founder of ETCSL, publish Literature of Ancient Sumer but leaves out the actual cuneiform. Starting with the Introduction (see Google Books) he adeptly covers the nuances using the awesome 9x6cm tablet containing 16 lines of Nertal's Axe story, encouraging the reader to begin to feel how enchanting Sumerian cuneiform is. Yet he sticks solely to what he calls “our Latin alphabet” (didn"t it come west via the Phoenicians [Lebanon], as in the phonetic alphabet!) in giving Sumerian readings and transliteration. Straight off he could have shown he was going to be totally faithful. Why not show us the beautiful picture of the magical axe, which when we go hunting for it on his own ETCSL baby (c573.4) we find cpd urud determ ha-zi-in axe Nergal (hazin, see 12154). What a shame. Jeremy must have known the signs intimately, and could have told us so much about his personal findings on their evolution and little things to look for in the pictures. Likewise with The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture - with a title that highlights the word cuneiform, yet way less than 1% actually shows signs. Really there should have been at least a chapter about the 300 most common Sumerian cuneiform. Nope, just some 800 pages of English phonetic script. And incredibly expensive. Yet you can find much of it around the Net (see Google Books for starters) and some fair dinkum cuneophiles share their contributions for free, like Frans van Koppen's Chapter 7 The Scribe of the Flood Story and His Circle at academia.edu (the original Mugsar 16i14 pdf is there too).

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The scribes who invented writing 5000 years ago clearly had no inhibitions about the basis for the design of their cuneiform, nor should we bowdlerize [etym.: Thomas Bowdler expurgated William Shakespeare (aka Edward de Vere) '1822] for hypocritical luddites / puritans who are still happy to plagiarize the technology revolution started by the Sumerians.

tablet 1 introduction

Scratching and dragging a pointed stylus would not have been near as effective and enduring for us to be able to read now.

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To top it off, at long last, for the many frustrated cuneophiles out there, comes the nifty Mugsar QuickFinder Index. Can you find an elite university that nifty?

Oh, and if any nuts were looking for evidence that these first great civilizations got some help from aliens …well, your first glance at the arrangement of many signs sure reminds one of spaceships, docking modules, rocket thruster exhausts – take a look at 12217 12217 LUGAL King in a spaceship man LUGAL King he's in a spaceship man! As you would expect for the King of the Sumerians / “Kings of the Earthlings“.

Seriously though, enduring Sumerian picture script on tablets offers us a lot more than say Greek phonetic writing on papyrus (much of it disintegrated almost immediately). One might first say that for starters the Greeks were much more intellectual. But how much of the basics were plagiarized from the Sumerians.

With the tablets we have a conduit, like electrons through a main circuit travelling at the speed of light straight back 5000 years ago. Analogous to astronomers and their powerful telescopes peering back into the evolution of galaxies (now there's an aptly interesting True Etymology – see 120F2 GAL big) and the universe. The pictures the scribes have transmitted on those tablets impress a profound insight into exactly how the people of the first civilization were thinking. Even with only a basic familiarity with the meanings of the logograms, it can be like watching timeshifted live video. Much more fascinating than the most expensive Steven Speilberg blockbuster but then what's a movie without a scriptwriter, and we"re talking about the very first writers ever, who put down the motifs of Gilgamesh and Inana.

Stop a moment and think about it. Put the huge amount of time in perspective. In that time many cultures did not develop writing at all, some had it and lost it. When plagio-religio somehow began to dominate the Romans the West was plunged into the Dark Ages, ironically only a bunch of monks were allowed to rehash one group of stories with a flood story, etc., plagiarized from guess where. Writing has really only started to make a comeback in the last few hundred years after the Renaissance / Enlightenment (even Guillem Shaksper's Stratford daughter couldn"t write). That's less than 10% of the timeline back to the Sumerians.

So at the next party you can say “I like movies” or “I"m studying a second language, French…” or you can say, “I"m a collaborator on the Mugsar … a nifty little igiTablet MUGSAR (they had it a bit before Steve Jobs!) we are developing so anyone can watch the Sumerians walking around 5000 years ago…”

Sumerian Cuneiform English Dictionary Cover 12013CT v16 cu 250

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Why Support the Mugsar?

What's in it for me, my family, my school, my business, my community?
Taking the high road, it's a major altruistic endeavor.
From a selfish viewpoint, it's a genuine shot at immortality.
To validate such a bold answer let's do a comparison.

Which has a better shot at Immortality: iPhone vs Mugsar ?

You know the iPhone from the zillion dollar Apple advertising campaigns.
It’s an apt comparison because founder Steve Jobs (11955-12011CT) is of the same generation, as is Microsoft’s Bill Gates (b. 11955CT) to Mugsar Pete’s (b. 11956CT), but he never ran into a Steve Wozniak or a Paul Allen, who were critical in the start of both enterprises.
The epochal Mugsar is the only standalone Sumerian Cuneiform Dictionary for the founders of 'education' in the world.
Compare its world ranking already with elite professors without $1 in support at academia.edu (considering too most of these professors get a $120K+ lifetime salary but few produce papers that students look at, whereas there’s Pete’s epochal Mugsar the education system dictates he gets continued remuneration reward of stone cold poverty).

Only the Mugsar rides the coattails of, and promotes 'Civilization Time' for all students in all cultures.
It constantly highlights the position of the Sumerians in CT to avoid the naivete of referring to them as 'ancient', and as a symbol that we are all part of its ascent - no cultural or class barriers, and so that users can see an unbroken timeline cf. the incumbent broken zero missing backwards sectarian year counting.

The Mugsar will become the defacto standard for every student in every school in the world to know Sumerian Cuneiform.
Can any other product realistically boast a market share that big?
We're not talking iPhones grabbing 30% of world market share, and wondering can they maintain it against Android et al.
Will the whole Apple corporation be even in existence in 1000* years? [*For the Mugsar we could easily add lots of zeros to the time frame but we'll keep the argument within a sporting chance for Apple.]
Can you even imagine how people will communicate in 1000 years, a chip implant or something direct to the brain?
Will a well run society's top educators think it reasonable to make sure students know Sumerian Cuneiform and how they founded 'education' to make Western Civilization possible in the first place. (Will they really be able to keep their jobs by only pushing the Romans and Greeks, like they got nothing from the Sumerians?)
Or will those students be browsing the Mugsar with those brain implants?

iphone-v-mugsar-immortality-13017CT

Which do you think has a better shot at growing market share, year in year out, decade in decade out, century in century out, millennia in millennia out – iPhone or Mugsar?

Which do you think has a better shot at immortality – iPhone or Mugsar?

Benefactors-Sponsors of Mugsar Sections-Signs

One day you will be gone.
Nobody will know you ever existed.
Why be forgotten?

Immortalize yourself, your family, your school, your business, your community by sponsoring the entire Mugsar, sections, like the nifty QuickFinder index, individual signs.

It's something like what happens in archaeology where a newly discovered dinosaur is named after a benefactor, like "Anzu wyliei – Chicken from Hell" named for the benefactor’s grandson, Wylie J Tuttle.

Obviously signs would have different values, depending on special attributes. High value ones would be particularly prestigious, for example, the very first on the alpha-numeric unicode system:

12000 12000 A vowel water A vowel; water... {The Xxxxx Family MUGSAR benefactors 12014CT nigul icon The Xxxxxx Family 12017CT}

The icon used is nigul g breve txt, an everlasting possession [120FB nih breve2 possession + 1230C ul distant time]

Heck, even dispossessed families like ours could be assigned some immortality pixels somewhere, including obscure variants that may still become more valuable for compound-making; and even turning graphics like the cover into a 10x10 pixel mosaic (aka image mapping) .
All plots would link to the official Mugsar Immortal Benefactors Register (MIBR).

Finder’s Commissions

There would be a 20% Finder’s Commission if the new MIB is found by an existing MIB.

More details at the Immortalizer page.

Mugsar Worldwide Headquarters

Being the school/town that becomes the Mugars wordwide headquarters could one day not only make you famous but also be an injection into the local economy, especially by creating jobs and hosting the MugsarFest (see below). All welcome. No candidate too small.
Whatever happens, it would be nice to think one day there will be a campus at the Mugsar Founders' Byron Bay Australia ancestral home, BallyHogan est.  '1882 - as close as possible to the mystical sphinx-pyramid conjuring Hogans Bluff (on maps near 171 Midgen Flat Road Newrybar NSW).

MugsarFest

Sales/auctions of signs; workshops – like how to write on clay; prizes for best clay tablet works, including replicas of famous Sumerian clay tablets, like the Gilgamesh Epic.
There would be 2 levels of MugsarFests:
1. MugsarFest International – a big annual event held to rival top film festivals hosted by the worldwide headquarters.
2. MugsarFest Fundraisers at the local level – meaning at any school, town, charity, not-for-profit. In areas of unemployment these could be setup to provide job experience or volunteer work (like for NIES). No registration or permission required, just go ahead and do it. If you make money, sponsoring a sign or something back here to the Mugsar site would be appreciated, and we could add your story to our News page.

Mugsar Careers / Internships / Volunteers

There are going to be lots of opportunities. Let us know what you have to offer or be the first one to setup a local MugsarFest Fundraiser and make a name for yourself.

Mugsar World Tour / Guest Speaker / Video Conferencing / Personal Tuition

Pete, Mugsar Founder, will reciprocate your support in any way possible.

Merchandising

Mugsar promotional items: apparel, DIY clay tablets + reed stylus, helping to sell new clay tablet works. Manufacturing site locations to boost struggling local economies.

Educational GameApp

The Mugsar GameApp will be a natural progression if we can find an altruistic programmer. It will make learning Sumerian Cuneiform fun, easy and of course, nifty. It will incorporate all kinds of exercises. For instance, scoring points depending on the time taken to find a particular sign, unicode, lemma, and translation.

Plan B - a PBL shows 'em all, and why education must change for the 121st Century It would be awesome if whiz kids nurtured at a PBL (Project Based Learning like at High Tech High San Diego) school pulled off the GameApp. Automatically making it internationally famous.

IPO

Every startup dreams of a successful IPO and cashing in stock options, especially a genuine epochal altruistic one that can give Menlo Park - Silicon Valley - Venture Capitalists something very rare in exchange, Immortality.
The idea is, every sponsorship dollar now would convert to stock options later. So not only do you get longterm benefit, immortality, but also a bonus in the shortterm. How long? Dare we entertain an IPO within 10 years. Historically, looking back, which would have deserved an IPO more in the 121st century, Facebook or Mugsar?

Mugsar Foundation

Last but not least, one day when we stumble onto a big benefactor we will have a Mugsar Foundation with a Board of Trustees (with one a blood descendant of the founder, of course) eternal guardianship to increase the chances of our shot at immortality.

Mugsar Tagline

Oldest Education Proverb (c. 7000CT / 5000 ya)

dub-sar eme-gi nu-mu-un-zu-a a-na-am3 nam-dub-sar

What kind of a student is a student who does not know Sumerian?

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd dub-sar scribe

cpd eme-gi tongue language 23x

cpd nu-mu-un-zu-a know

cpd a-na-am3 what

cpd nam-dub-sar-ra-ni scribe arts var

dub-sar

eme-gi

nu-mu-un-zu-a

a-na-am3

nam-dub-sar-ra-ni

scribe

1207E DUB tablet + 122AC SAR write

Sumerian language

12174 EME language + 12100 GI reed / write

not know

(in all of Sumer)

12261 NU not

+ 1222C MU name + 12326 UN (KALAM / Sumer)

+ 1236A ZU know + 12000 A bemoan

what

12000 A bemoan

+ 1223ENA aux.

+1202DAN invoke the gods

scribe's craft

12246 NAM determined order; destiny

+ cpd DUBSAR scribe +

1228F RA (rah2)

[verb aux.] + 1224C NI come to pass

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'education' true etymology = edub

Of course, the shame is not on the student, we all know where the social responsibility lies when we are talking about the oldest written language - the first schools, the founders of 'education' (indeed, the word's true etymology is clearly Sumerian edub education true etymology mugsar edub, 3000 years before Latin plagio). So we can just as easily substitute, "What kind of teacher / professor / dean / principal / chancellor / school / university / education department director / culture..."

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MugsarSumerian Sponsor gif

twitter-button

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How to use

For mobiles / small screens best viewed in landscape.
The Main Listings follow same order as the standard cuneiform unicode (alpha-numeric) column after column (why didn"t the powers that be just keep the codes sequentially all numeric?!). If you only have the sign try Major Lemma, then the QuickFinder Index.

First lemma (reading / syllable) after grapheme is usually the "sign name", sometimes the Sumerian name as well, as are any other readings / aliases after that. Gradually adding compounds. Cuneiform fonts have been replaced with jpg graphics because some tablets do not display them. Clearer shots of logograms will come eventually, for now use ScriptSource (click on first result for even bigger size) or Google Images (e.g. “unicode 120F6″).

And the Mugsar is proudly, and primarily, a Sumerian dictionary of the first writers, not Akkadian, Babylonian nor Hittite ones. So we pretty much are only interested in lemma that go back to at least Ur III (8000CT / 4000ya). Nor lemma that have 0x attestations. Again there are some great lexicons around but they include a big chunk of this latter stuff, when plagiarizing the Sumerians was in full swing. And don"t even show attestations, nor you know what… it's bad enough that there are no signs, but to think that much is not even Sterling-Sumerian, or rarely used, well.

You may notice with sign evolution, that it goes from the proto drawings to the cool Sumerian cuneiform, and then about 1000 years after them the fanastic pictures are lost through over simplification and the move to bland phonetic script. Who wants to look at that kind of dictionary. That's why we are proudly snobs of Mugsar!

MAIN LISTINGS

Numeric Unicode & A-Z Lemma [914]

12000 12000 A vowel water A [vowel; 2329x] = water (plural only) | (mû) (most often complimented with MEŠ) | progeny, heir; [110x] a cry of woe, bemoan, (sigh of) wonder, groan (aya) | dur5, duru5 [227x]= (to be) soft; (to be) wet, moist, damp; irrigated; fresh | {The Xxxxx Family MUGSAR benefactors 12014CT nigul icon The Xxxxxx Family 12017CT}

12000 evol Heise A vowel water

cpds cpd ID2  i7 river canal 1086x ID2, i7 [1086x] = river, canal | determinative &id2; river names cpd A-NA what 566x a-na [566x] = what?; as much as [it takes] (math.)[~ + 1223ENA aux.] cpd am3 copula to be variant 50x am3 = [50x]to be [copula variant cf. 12228; 12000 A progeny +1202DAN deity; True Etym. English 'am'] | šeg3(šeg3)[70x]= to (fall as) dew; to rain; rain

cpd a-ba who 326x a-ba [326x] = who [12000 A progeny +12040 BA share]

A Variants:

uQQ uQQ AYA father 561x a-a (aya) [561x] = father | cf. 1201C1201C AD

12001 12001 A x A A x A; 12002 12002 A x BAD A x BAD; 12003 12003 A x GAN2 TENU A x GAN2 tenu;

12004 12004 A A x HA | sah breve7 (Borger zah breve3) [481x] = to disappear; to move away, withdraw; to stay away; (to be) lost; (to be) fugitive

12005 12005 A A x IGI; 12006 12006 A A x LAGAR gunu; 12007 12007 A x MUSH A x MUSH; 12008 12008 A A x SAG

12009 12009 A2 ID TI8 time A2, ID, TI8, IDUM= [6115x] arm /limb; labor; wing; horn; side; strength; wage; power | time | [Evol.: shoulder + arm] | cpd cpd ID-GURUM id-gur2 ladle 2026xid-gurum(id-gur2) [2026x] = ladle | cpd A2-AN date spadix spike erection plus AN AN, a2-an [48x] = spadix (plant spike, erection)

1200A 1200A AB sea window ABZU AB, IM5 | = cosmic sea, window | AB.BA = ancestor | cpd cpd ABZU abyss cosmic under water ABZU = abyss [~ + 1236A ZU know] – Sumerian mythology: the world / earth was a disc and under was the abzu [label: True Etymology] |

cpd cpd UNU unu6 banquet dining hall seat throne dwelling UNU, unu6 [1511x] = banquet; dining hall; the most sacred part of a temple; seat, throne; dwelling, domicile, abode; temple

AB Variants:

1200B 1200B AB x ASH ~ x ASH2; 1200C 1200C AB ~ x DUN3 gunu; 1200D 1200D AB ~ x GAL | irigal [OB]; 1200E 1200E AB ~ x GAN2 tenu; 1200F 1200F AB ~ x HA; 12010 12010 AB ~ x IGI gunu; 12011 12011 AB ~ x IMIN (5+2=7); 12012 12012 AB ~ x LAG~; 12013 12013 AB ~ x SHESH

12014 12014 AB URUK AB x U + U + U | UNU, UNUG, ERI11, AB x EŠ | cpd uru-UNUG Uruk URU UNUG(Sumerian)= Uruk

1201512015 AB AB gunu | ab4,aba4, gun4, iri11, unu, unug| cpd cpd UR-IM2-ki Ur v1 URIM(Sumerian)= Ur (city) | unug,unu2 (see unu6 above 1200A)

12016 12016 AB2 AB2 [5272x] = cow [cf. 121A8 121A8 KISIM5 KISIM5(with tail – sour milk)]

12016 evol cow

AB2 Variants:

12017 12017 AB2 ~ x BALAG;

1201812018 AB2 ~ x GAN2 tenu| šem5 [14x]= a drum

12019 12019 AB2 ~ x ME +EN;

1201A1201A AB2 ~ x SHA3 | lipiš [40x] =inner body; heart; anger, rage | šem3, ub3 [15x] = a drum

1201B 1201B AB2 ~ x TAK4

1201C1201C ADAD [36x] = father [cf. uQQuQQ AYA father 561xaya (561x)] |ad [26x] voice; cry; noise | [13x] log; plank

cpdcpd ad-da dad etym 178x ad-da = father [ ~ + 12055 DA line (gen.)] | True Etym. “dad”

1201D 1201D AK to do basic verb AK(ag) [3643x] = to do; to make; to act, perform; to proceed,proceeding (math.)

cpdcpd im-ak-a-bi revengeim-ak-a-bi = revenge [1214E IM anger + 1201D AK to do

+ 12000 A bemoan + 12049 BI open]

cpd mu-ak do MU-AK = do (cooking) [1222C MU name, cook + 1201D AK do]

1201E 1201E AK AK x ERIN2 | me3 [243x] = battle, combat

1201F 1201F AK AK x SHITA + GISH

12020 12020 AL AL [744x] = hoe / hoeing, pickax [tool; CVNE = compound verb nominal element]

AL Variants:

12021 12021 AL ~ x ~; 12022 12022 AL ~ x DIM2; 12023 12023 AL ~ x GISH; 12024 12024 AL ~ x HA; 12025 12025 AL ~ x KAD3; 12026 12026 AL ~ x KI; 12027 12027 AL ~ x SHE; 12028 12028 AL ~ x USH

12029 12029 ALAN statue icon ALAN, ALAM [399x] = statue, icon, form | (GUD/GUD).NA2| cf. 1223F1223F NA2 NU2 bed Nu2 lay, bed

1202A 1202A ALEPH ALEPH [reconstructed (first) sign => "A" ??; cf. HI1212D HI sweet/good; ox (head)]

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

1202B 1202B AMAR ZUR calf young bull AMAR [2771x] = young, youngster, son, descendant; calf / young bull, chick | zur | cpdcpd marduk amar-utu calf of the sun godamar-utu =Marduk (bull calf of the sun god utu – northern hemisphere 12 day winter solstice celebration of his birthday, later plagarized by various cultures) [ ~ + 12313 utu sun]

1202C 1202C AMAR sacrifice ritualAMAR x SHE (ŠE) = sacrifice, ritual

1202D 1202D AN sky god AN, DIGIR (dingir) [1837x] = sky, god, goddess, deity, cosmic; heaven; upper; crown (of a tree) | determinative divine names &d; | plant spadix (spike) erection – see12009

1202E 1202E AN AN/AN;

1202F1202F AN MUL star Tara AN x 3 | AN/AN.AN, mul [129x] = star; to shine, radiate (light); arrow; to radiate (branches)[Tara! (also in sanskrit)] | determinative &mul; stars / planets

cpd cpd MUL-AN heavenly star 33xmul-an [33x] = cosmic star [1202F MUL star + 1202D AN cosmic]

12030 12030 AN AN + NAGA OPP. AN + NAGA; 12031 12031 AN cross enlarged AN + NAGA sq

12032 12032 ANSHE donkey horse ANSHE / anše= [2957x] donkey, equid (hoofed mammals) | DUR3, DUSU2 | ANŠE+NUN+NA = mule | ANŠE+KUR+RA = horse | determinative donkey/horse names &ance;

12033 12033 APIN plow ENGAR  farmer APIN, GIŠapin (uru4) [741x] = (seed) plow | uru4 [359x] = sow, cultivate | engar = farmer | àbsin = furrow (long shallow trench)

12034 12034 ARAD servant slave ARAD, ÌR (ir3), níta, nitah breve = [269x] slave, servant

12035 12035 ARADARAD2 (ir11) x KUR = [3028x] slave, servant [from the hinterland / mountain tribes]

[PLM] 12035 evolJaritz #668 "(male) slave". It is normally read as arad2 but it also reads ge24 for *gi24 which simply means "male"; and that the meaning "male" is derived from *gix, phallus, making gi24 *gî24.

12036 12036 ARKABARKAB | arkab2 = [0x!] bird orbat | argab (GAR-IB)

12037 12037 ASAL2ASAL2 | asalx = [0x!] poplartree [PSD aliases: asar2 ašar2 (A.TU.GABA.LIŠ)]

12038 12038 ASH 1 one ASH /[191x] = 1 (“1″ one numeric) | dili [227x]= (to be) single, unique, sole; (to be) alone

12039 12039 ASH ZISA TENU ASH ZIDA tenu; 1203A 1203A ASH KABA TENU ASH KABA tenu

1203B 1203B ASH ~/~ TUG2/TUG2 TUG2/TUG2 PAP

1203C 1203C ESH 3 three ASHx3, ESH / = 3 (“3″ three numeric)

1203D 1203D ASHASH/~/~ +-ing ~/~/~ | KASH / kaš2(kas) = beer, alcohol [1344x] cf 12049

1203E 1203E ASH2ASH2 (út), aš2 = curse [51x]

1203F 1203F ASHGAB leatherASHGAB / AŠGAB [631x] = leather-worker

12040 12040 BA porridgeBA = [839x]split; to divide into shares, share, halve, to allot; porridge; [26x]animal, marine creature; [11x]open, thresh | [19x] tool (cpd reed stylus)

[PLM]12040 evol12040 evol 2central line demarcating the gluteal cleft of the buttocks [True Etym. bum, butt-ocks], with the line extending below as a tail, to make its position on the anatomy clear cf. Inana L116[Jaritz #5]

cpd cpd su8-ba -ES- shepherd 25xsu8-ba (ES) [25x] = shepherd

cpd ba-ni-in-dug4-ga more violent threshing about ba-ni-in-dug4-ga = more violent threshing about [12040 BA threshing + 1224C NI quiver + 12154 IN = abuse, rape + 12157 dug4 / KA = perform + 120B5 GA suckling, hold]

cpd ba-ni-in-su-ub-ba more violent threshing about kissing suckingba-ni-in-su-ub-ba = kissing [12040 BA thresh about + 1224C NI quiver+ 12154 IN = abuse, rape + 122E2 SU submerge, flesh + 12312 UB praise, ruin]

12041 12041 BAD death 12041 Heise BAD death BAD, BE | [109x] (to be) remote; to open, undo | SUMUN, SUN = lú+bad = lord | munus+bad = lady | úš = death, destruction | reed stylus ?? cf. 12357 12357 USH22 = die, kill; blood | cf. 12300 12300 TIL BAD death cf 12041 TIL

12042 12042 BAG3 BAG3 ?? = qqq [numeric ??; ba-ga ?? | pag, bag, bak, pak, HU, 12137]

12043 12043 BARHAR2 BAHAR2 [315x] = potter

12044 12044 BAL GISH spindle BAL, giš, gešbalak(gešbalak,gešbala,gešbala) [31x] = spindle cf. 121B0121B0 KUL seed offspring NUMUN seed

cpd cpd balbale bal-bal-e literary subscript 34x balbale (bal-bal-e) [34x] = literary subscript [~x2 + 1208A e speak]

12045 12045 BAL BAL/BAL

12046 12046 BALAG DUB2 harp BALAG [154x], DUB2 = harp, large drum (instrument)

12047 12047 BAR half BAR [2579x] = outside, (other) side; behind; outer form, outer; fleece; outsider, strange; back, shoulder; liver; because of; to set aside; to cut open, slit, split | half; LÚ+MÁŠDA = poor man | MAŠD+TAB+BA = twin cf 12226 12226 MASH half MASHDA twin -cross-

12048 12048 BARA2 BARA2, barag = [423x] ruler, king; dais, seat;[52x] sack; a part of an animal's body;[7x] mix

12049 12049 BI PI KASH open beer BI / PI, KASH / kaš [13889x] = beer; alcoholic drink | determinative &kac; alcohol | (* True Etym. bi => beer); open [also 1203D 1203D ASH]

1204A 1204A BI ~ x A

1204B 1204B BI ~ x GAR | bappir3 [385x] = an ingredient in beer-making

1204C 1204C BI ~ x IGI gunu

1204D 1204D BU GID2 long lengthBU, GID2 = [2252x] long, length | bur12(bu) = to tear[189x; verb]

1204E 1204E BU ~/~ AB; 1204F 1204F BU ~/~ UN; 12050 12050 BU ~ +-ing ~

12051 12051 BULUG BULUG [56x] =needle; stake; boundary; seal pin

12052 12052 BULUG ~/~

12053 12053 BUR BUR [85x] = (food) offering, sacrifice; meal(-time); (stone) bowl; a priest | bur [67x]= a unit of area; a unit of volume | cpdcpd burgal BUR-GUL stone cutter 55x burgul (BUR+GUL) = stone-cutter [55x]

12054 12054 BUR2 BUR2 = [78x] light; to glow, shine | bur2 [176x] = to release, free; to reveal; to spread out, cover

12055 12055 DA eg DA-RI2 eternal DA, DAG [77x] = line (esp genealogy) | da =[479x]side, edge; vicinity | gešda(gešda) = [13x]writing board | [PLM]12055 evol da side

cpd cpd DAGGAN da-gan2 -sleeping- chamber 11x DAGGAN, da-gan2 [11x] = (sleeping) chamber [ ~ + 120F7 GAN field, area];

cpd da-ga-na sleeping chamberDA-GA_NA = lair [12055 DA lair + 120B5 GA suckling, hold + 1223E NA man, pestle, pounder]

12056 12056 DAG DAG [46x] = dwelling

DAG KISIM5 (121A8 sour milk [cow] + dwelling = diary farm??) Variants:

12057 12057 DAG ~ x A + MASH; 12058 12058 DAG ~ x AMAR;

12059 12059 DAG~ x BALAG; 1205A 1205A DAG ~ x BI

1205B 1205B DAG UBUR female breast nipple DAG-KISIM5 x GA | akan, ubur = female breast, nipple

1205C 1205C DAG ~ x GA + MASH; 1205D 1205D DAG ~ x GI; 1205E 1205E DAG ~ xGIR2

1205F 1205F DAG UTUL5 cow herd DAG-KISIM5 x GUD | utul5 = cow herd

12060 12060 DAG~ x HA; 12061 12061 DAG ~~ x IR; 12062 12062 DAG ~~ x IR + LU ;12063 12063 DAG ~~ x KAK; 12064 12064 DAG ~~ x LA; 12065 12065 DAG ~~ x LU; 12066 12066 DAG ~~ x LU + MASH2; 12067 12067 DAG ~~ x LUM; 12068 12068 DAG ~~ x NE; 12069 12069 DAG ~~ x PAP + PAP; 1206A 1206A DAG ~~ x SI; 1206B 1206B DAG ~~ x TAK4; 1206C 1206C DAG ~~ x U2 + GIR2; 1206D 1206D DAG ~~ x USH

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

1206E 1206E DAM wife DAM [2104x] = wife, spouse

cpd cpd nam-dam marriage 92x nam-dam [92x] = marriage [12246 NAM determined order + ~]

cpd e2-dam tavern e2-dam [10x] = tavern [1208D e2 house + ~]

1206F 1206F DAR DAR [402x] = to break up, crush, grind; to split, split up; to cut open | durahx(dara4)[410x] = wild goat, mountain goat | cf. 12071 below

12070 12070 DARA3 DARA3 ~ IBEX |durah(dara3)[89x] = wild goat, mountain goat | cf. 1206F

12071 12071 DARA4 red brown blood DARA4 [43x] = (to be) red; (to be) brown; blood | cf. 1206F above

12072 12072 DI right justice DI (de, did) [452x] = right, justice, law, lawsuit, trial; legal decision | cpd cpd dikud judge 326x di-kud = judge, judgement; lawsuit [ ~ + 122FB decide] | sa2 (sá) [452x] = to equal, compare, compete, be equal to, rival; [91x] to tie (shoes); [46x] advice, counsel; resolution, intelligence | salim, silim [228x] = well-being; healthy, prosperity; completeness, favourable | syll.: ti4

12073 12073 DIB DABDIB, DAB = GRASP | LU, UDU = sheep [cf 121FB]

12074 12074 DIM DIM [38x] = post, pillar, pole; binding, knot, bond; plant

12075 12075 DIM DIM x SHE / ŠE, DIM x KUR | MUN [427x] = salt; to be brackish; older ??

12076 12076 DIM2 DIM2 [2109x] = to create, make, manufacture; to replace?; to bring forth?

12077 12077 DIN DIN [1x UNMNG – PSD: unknown/ED IIIb/Nippur...] cf. compound suffix – chariot, vegetable

12078 12078 DIN DIN KASKAL U gunu DISH

12079 12079 DISH 1 one DISH [5x!] = 1 (“1″ one numeric) | GEŠ2[92x] = 60 sixty;| DIŠ (), GIŠ2, NIGIDA

1207A 1207A DU to go GUB stand DU [5868x] gin, ra2, ri6, gen (gen) = to go / come; [2789x] = to go; to flow | de6 [1794x] / tum2 [10x behind tum3 134x] = to bring / carry | GUB = stand

1207A evol foot go stand

cpd cpd e3 UD-DU leave go out thread e3 (UD-DU) [1850x] = to leave, to go out; to thread, hang on a string; to remove, take away; to bring out; to enter; to bring in; to raise, rear (a child); to sow; to rave; to winnow; to measure (grain) roughly (with a stick); to rent [12313 UD sun + ~]

cpd DU-NA go gen-na = go [ ~ + 1223E pestle]

cpd im-gen went im-gen = went [1214E IM copula + ~]

cpd a-ra2 times 4046x a-ra2 [4046x] = times (with numbers, multiplication); ways; way; omen; step (math.) [12000 A progeny + ~]

1207B 1207B DU DU/DU; 1207C 1207C DU DU gunu

1207D 1207D DU DU sheshig / šešis, gir5, KASH / kaš4 (kas4) [1089x] = runner, trotter, messenger; to run

1207E 1207E DUB clay tablet DUBSAR DUB [1183x] = (clay) tablet, document | kišib3 kishib3 [17468xxx!] = cylinder seal, sealed tablet

[PLM] 1207E evol1207E evol 2 Jaritz #239 "(brick/tablet) mold", and is recorded to mean "clay tablet", which is simply a "molded loaf" put to an intellectual rather than a constructional use; dub also recorded to read dubb(-)a (for *dûppâ), which would represent "molded (thing)" = "tablet/brick". Sumerian *dûp is also recorded for the meaning "heap/pile up, spread out mud to make bricks"

cf. 1222912229 MES cylinder seal sealed tablet black Gilgameshmes(meš3), kišib black hero; 1231D1231D UM reed rope UM reed (stylus?) stem

cpds:

cpd dub-sar scribe dubsar [11320x] = scribe [1207E DUB tablet + 122AC SAR write] | True Etym.: English "dub" (to name; give higher standing; replace script / sound)

cpd eduba e2-dub true etym edu-cation eduba (e2-dub) = education, school (Literature of Ancient Sumer, Jeremy Black, xxiv [Google Books]) True Etym., edu-cation [1208D e2 house + 1207E (above) dub tablets {education = house of tablets}]

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cpd gi-dub-ba stylus gi-dub-ba = reed tablet stylus [12100 GI reed stem + 1207E DUB tablet + 12040 BA divide tool]

how to write on clay Prof Hout2

How to write on clay

cpd bisag-dub-ba archivist 459x bisag-dub-ba [450x] = archivist [ 120B7 bisag basket + 1207E DUB tablet + 12040 BA divide tool]

cpd dub-bala tablet-turn to go over an account 31xdub-bala [31x] = to go over an account [ ~ + 12044 BAL spindle, turn]

cpd nam-dub-sar scribe arts 16x nam-dub-sar = [16x] scribe arts / craft [12246 NAM determined order; destiny + ~]

cpd nam-dub-sar-ra-ni scribe arts var nam-dub-sar-ra-ni = do. [+ verb aux.]

cpd e2-dub-ba-a scribe school e2-dub-ba-a = scribe school [1208D e2 school, house + 1207E DUB tablet + 12040 BA allot, share + 12000 water, progeny]

1207F 1207F DUB DUB x ESH2

12080 12080 DUB DUB2 [186x] = to tremble, make tremble; to push away, down; to smash, abolish

12081 12081 DUG pot DUG [3196x] dugx(BI), BI x A = (clay) pot; a unit of liquid capacity | determinative vessels &dug;

12082 12082 DUGUD heavy important DUGUD [124x] = heavy, important

12083 12083 DUGUD loose TUH DU GABA breast DUH [556x] / DUH breve cap, DU, du8 [2369x] = bake, to release, loose, loosen, undo, strip off; to spread out mud to make bricks; to caulk (filler, seal) TUH breve cap, DU8, GAB | GABA = breast | cf. 120EE same sign GABA = copy; equal

cpd cpd mu-un-du8-du8 spread mu-un-du8-du8 = stripped, made naked [1222C name, phallus + 12326 (KALAM = Sumer) + 120EE (/12083) du8 (GABA) x2 strip off; spread; breast; equal [NB double emphasis on strip / ravage]]

12084 12084 DUNDUN [32x] = to dig

12085 12085 DUN3 shekel DUN3, GIN2, TUN3 = cover | cpd sag-DUN3 [447x] = land recorder;du5-mu = apprentice (ES) [after 12309 dumu]

1208612086 DUN3 DUN3 gunu | gig4(gin2) [18136x] = unit of weight, shekel (see 122BA "SHE"); a unit of area; a unit of volume | gel / kel, aga3

cpd cpd aga3-kar2 conqueror 5xaga3-kar2 [5x] = conqueror [ ~ + uQQ kar2 insult, blow up, light]

12087 12087 DUN3 DUN3 gunu gunu

12088 12088 DUN SUDUN SUDUL yoke DUN4, DUL4, ŠUDUN3, ŠUDUL3, URgunû šešig, MIRšešig = yoke | mir (mer) [347x] = north wind; north; storm

12089 12089 DUR2 DUR2 [98x] = backside 12089 DUR2 r rump, butt-ocks; defile, cleft[cpd suffix e.g. wooden ledger board] | cf. 121AA 121AA KU DUR2 TUKUL TUSH sit seated

cpd cpd dur2-bi-she3 rump dur2-bi-še3 = rump [12089 backside + 12049 BI open + 12365 še3 string (cf. loincloth)]

1208A 1208A E vowel E [vowel; 399x] = to speak | perfect plural and imperfect stem of "dug"; princely | interjection marker; fear, aura

1208B 1208B E E x PAP

1208C 1208C E E/E NUN/NUN

1208D 1208D E2 house temple E2 [13124x] = house, household; temple; station (of the moon)?; room; house-lot; estate | determinative &e2; buildings / rooms names

cpd cpd E-GAL palaceÉ.GAL = palace [ ~ + 120F2 GAL big]

cpd E-A-NI temple e-a-ni = temple [ ~ + aux a-ni: "12000 A wonder + 1224C NI timelessness"]

E2 Variants:

1208E 1208E E2 ~ x A + HA + DA; 1208F 1208F E2 ~ x GAR; 12090 12090 E2 ~ x MI;

12091 12091 E2 ~ x SAL; 12092 12092 E2 ~ x SHE; 12093 12093 E2 ~ x U

12094 12094 EDIN EDIN / EDEN, bir4 = steppe, open country; back [True Etymology Dictionary: 2000 years before religio Eden myths; note also Eridu] | cpd subir city Subir

12095 12095 EGIR after EGIR, egir(egir, eger) [393x] = back, rear; after; estate, inheritence; again

12096 12096 EL SIKIL pure cuneus EL, SIKIL [457x] = pure | cf. 122DB 122DB SI horn SI = horn [cuneus + horny = pure]

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

12097 12097 EN lord EN [1480x] = lord / master / rulers of (abbrev. for) Sumer | [7739x] = priest

major cpd cpd KI-EN-GI Sumer 2 KI-EN-GI = Sumer [121A0 KI cosmic + 12097 EN lord + 12100 GI {not gir15! see notes}] [ETCSL ex: Poem Išme-Dagan (c.2.5.4.01), line c25401.A.364]

cpd gan-eb-us2-en join h breve e2-eb-us2-en = protection from the rulers of Sumer (your black brothers – Inana & Šukaletuda c133.233) [120F6 h breve e2 be he + 12141 IB oval + 12351 us2 lean on + 12097 EN rulers of Sumer]

E2 Variants:

12098 12098 EN EN x GAN2 BURU14, BAR8, SULLIM | buru14, = [206x] harvest, summer

12099 12099 EN EN x GAN2 tenu; 1209A 1209A EN EN x ME; 1209B 1209B EN EN +-ing EN;

1209C 1209C EN EN opp EN; 1209D 1209D EN EN sq

1209E 1209E EREN cedar EREN [213x] = cedar

1209F 1209F ERIN2 PIRIG people troops ERIN2, erin2(erem, eren2, erim) [2722x] = people, troops | ZALAG2; PIRIG | giš+érin = scales | érin+meš = troops, military unit | cpd cpd GURUM2 inspection provisions 726xgurum2 [726x] = inspection, provisions [12146 IGI eye + ~]

120A0 120A0 ESH2 GIR native KIENGIR SumerianESH2(EŠ ~ bà), gir15 [7x! little as used] = native, local | cf. 1222A 1222A MI GE6 black sag gig-ga gi6[7223x] = black ~ giving ki.en.gi …Seems like some elites (incl those that control Wakipedia!) don"t want to emphasize ki.en.gi = black Sumerians (are smarter because "the reed stylus is mightier than the sword", see 12100 gi) — they use instead non-Sumerian, little used (see notes), Babylonian 120A0 gir subscript number 15 no less, which is really "flour" 12365 12365 ZI13 zi3 [7223x!] which such types, incl. University of Pennsylvania's PSD relegates / obscures in italics as 12365 variant italic ZID2 flour 7223x

..

[12401]12401 ESH6 three 36 = “3″ [numeric list]

120A1 120A1 EZEN sing song epic EZEN (EZEM) [1136x] = festival;walled area?? | IZIN, KEŠDA | šir3, sir3 [150x]= sing, song, epic

EZEN Variants:

120A2 120A2 EZEN ~ x A; 120A3 120A3 EZEN ~ x A + LAL; 120A4 120A4 EZEN ~ x A + LAL x LAL; 120A5 120A5 EZEN ~ x AN

120A6 120A6 EZEN BAD UG5 wall fortification EZEN x BAD, UG5, BAD3 = wall, fortification

120A7 120A7 EZEN ~ x DUN3 gunu; 120A8 120A8 EZEN ~ x DUN3 gunu gunu; 120A9 120A9 EZEN ~ x HA; 120AA 120AA EZEN ~ x HA gunu; 120AB 120AB EZEN ~ x IGI gunu; 120AC 120AC EZEN ~ x KASKAL | sud5 = purify; 120AD 120AD EZEN ~ x KASKAL sq; 120AE 120AE EZEN ~ x KU3; 120AF 120AF EZEN ~ x LA; 120B0 120B0 EZEN ~ x LAL x LAL; 120B1 120B1 EZEN ~ x LI; 120B2 120B2 EZEN ~ x LU; 120B3 120B3 EZEN ~ x U2; 120B4 120B4 EZEN ~ x UD

..120B5 120B5 GA suckling young milk cow GA = [4425x] suckling (cow), young | ga (ES) [1794x]= to bring / carry | gur11 = heap up | cf.120FC 120FC GAR3GA = knob, unit measurement

True Etym. – "galaxy" – "gala = milk" – 120B5 GA clearly depicts a cow; also cpd cpd GAL4-LA cuneus gal4-la = procreating female parts; also 120F2 GAL big, great

cpd cpd ga-na come on exclam 25x ga-na, gana[25x]= come on! [~ + 1223E NA aux]

120B6 120B6 GA gunu GA gunu

120B7 120B7 GA2 MAL PISAN basket GA2 (ga2 / gá), mal, bisag / bisag[704x] (pisan) = basket | [208x] place [#2 behind 120FB 120FB GAR NINDA NIG2 thing 2500x ] | ga2 (ga2) [67x] = house | PLM: shallow dish; jaw?? [pregnant??]

GA2 Variants:

120B8 120B8 GA2 ~ x A + DA + HA; 120B9 120B9 GA2 ~ x A + HA;

120BA 120BA GA2 ~ x A + IGI; 120BB 120BB GA2 ~ x AB2 tenu + TAB

120BC 120BC GA2 AMA mother DAGAL broad GA2 x AN, | ama = [863x] mother (goddess) | [PLM: maternal love - True Etym. cf. Latin ama-re / amor] | ama-lu | AMA-AN-MUŠ3 | dagal [745x] = (to be) wide / broad; width, breadth

120BD 120BD GA2 ~ x ASH; 120BE 120BE GA2 ~ x ASH2 + GAL; 120BF 120BF GA2 ~ x BAD ; 120C0 120C0 GA2 ~ x BAR + RA; 120C1 120C1 GA2 ~ x BUR; 120C2 120C2 GA2 ~ x BUR + RA; 120C3 120C3 GA2 ~ x DA; 120C4 120C4 GA2 ~ x DI; 120C5 120C5 GA2 ~ x DIM x SHE; 120C6 120C6 GA2 ~ x DUB; 120C7 120C7 GA2 ~ x EL; 120C8 120C8 GA2 ~ x EL + LA; 120C9 120C9 GA2 ~ x EN; 120CA 120CA GA2 ~ x EN x GAN2 tenu; 120CB 120CB GA2 ~ x GAN2 tenu; 120CC 120CC GA2 ~ x GAR; 120CD 120CD GA2 ~ x GI; 120CE 120CE GA2 ~ x GI4; 120CF 120CF GA2 ~ x GI4 + A; 120D0 120D0 GA2 ~ x GIR2 + SU; 120D1 120D1 GA2 ~ x HA + LU + ESH2; 120D2 120D2 GA2 ~ x HAL; 120D3 120D3 GA2 ~ x HAL + LA; 120D4 120D4 GA2 ~ x HI + LI; 120D5 120D5 GA2 ~ x HUB2; 120D6 120D6 GA2 ~ x IGI gunu; 120D7 120D7 GA2 ~ x ISH + HU + ASH; 120D8 120D8 GA2 ~ x KAK; 120D9 120D9 GA2 ~ x KASKAL; 120DA 120DA GA2 ~ x KID; 120DB 120DB GA2 ~ x KID + LAL; 120DC 120DC GA2 ~ x KU3 + AN; 120DD 120DD GA2 ~ x LA; 120DE 120DE GA2 ~ x ME + EN; 120DF 120DF GA2 ~ x MI ; 120E0 120E0 GA2 ~ x NUN

120E1 120E1 GA2 beam GA2 x NUN/NUN = beam | UR3[282x]= to shut; protection

120E2 120E2 GA2 GA2 x PA, SILA4, GAZI = lamb

120E3 120E3 GA2 GA2 x SAL; 120E4 120E4 GA2 ~ x SAR

120E5 120E5 GA2 store warehouse GA2 x SHE, ESAG2, = store, warehouse

120E6 120E6 GA2 GA2 x SHE + TUR; 120E7 120E7 GA2 ~ x SHID; 120E8 120E8 GA2 ~ x SUM; 120E9 120E9 GA2 ~ x TAK4; 120EA 120EA GA2 ~ x U; 120EB 120EB GA2 ~ x UD; 120EC 120EC GA2 ~ x UD + DU; 120ED 120ED GA2 ~/~

..

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

120EE 120EE GABA GABA, TUH breve cap, du8 = [821x] breast, chest; frontier; [proudly display] | copy; equal |[3x] a designation of sheep | cf. 12083 same sign = release; spread

cpds cpd GABA-RI copy equal 563x gaba-ri [563x] = copy; equal [ ~ + 12291 RI = lay down]

cpd im-mi-du8 spread im-mi-du8 = proudly display [1214E IM wind, mood, is (copula) + 1222A MI black + 120EE (/12083) du8 (GABA); spread]

120EF 120EF GABA GABA +-ing GABA

120F0 120F0 GAD GAD (KAD) [633x] = linen, flax (plant fibre that is made into a thread and woven) cf. cpd MURUB2 cuneus re 12260 MURUB6 MURUB2

120F1 120F1 GAD GAD/GAD GAR/GAR

120F2 120F2 GAL big great GAL [6612x] = big, great 120F2 Heise GAL big great

True Etym. – "galaxy" [even if you take the 'gala = milk' line, then we have 120B5 120B5 GA suckling young milk cow GA (sign clearly depicting a big cow) and cpd cpd GAL4-LA cuneus gal4-la = procreating female parts

120F3 120F3 GAL GAL GAD/GAD GAR/GAR

120F4 120F4 GALAM SUKUD height GALAM, SUKUD [227x] = height, altitude

120F5 120F5 GAM down below GAM = down, below | gurum, gur2 [138x] = to bend, curve, wrap around; to bow; to roll up; to curb, restrain; to watch over | cpd cpd ID-GURUM id-gur2 ladle 2026xid-gurum(id-gur2) [2026x] = ladle

120F6 120F6 GAH bear young HO-GAN GAN / KAN [12x] = bear young; child-bearing [HO.GAN!] | he2 (h breve e2)[8x]= be (it / he / she) | be2 [52x #2 behind e] = perfect plural and imperfect stem of "dug"

cpdcpd DA-GAN toatlity assembly band 2xDA-GAN [2x] = totality; assembly; band [12055 DA line (esp genealogy) + ~]

cpd he2-em to be h breve e2-em = to be [ ~ + 1214E IM to be]

cpd he2-gal2 plenty 300xhe2-gal2[300x] = plenty [ ~ + 12145 gal2 lay down]

PLM / True Etym.120f6 evol orig. 120f6 evol 2 reed jug over a waist with two legs", indicating a "reed jug being carried, "pointed-thing" = "reed" [Jaritz #271] … so can also be interpreted as "carrying/storing a basket-like/womb"; and with this interpretation reads GAN, "bear young"

From this Sumerian GAN / KAN cf. Greek kánna, "reed, cane"… Latin canna, "reed, cane, type of vessel", almost certainly the reverse process took place for the meaning "reed, cane";… the source of canna … "jug"… "pointed-thing-tool" = "(pointed, carrying) jug, amphora", seen in Greek kántharos, "drinking cup" … "jug", seen clearly in Frankish cannada, "jug" … reeds were hollow, and could be used for jugs by merely cutting off a section sealed naturally at the bottom…

cpdcpd ul4-he2 or GAN firmament vault of the skyul4-he2[1x but 7000CT/3000plagio] = firmament, vault of the sky[12109ul4 early; terror + 120F6 he2 open]an

120F7 120F7 GAN2 GAN2 / GAN2, IKU = field, unit of area | determinative &iku; surface measurement

120F8 120F8 GAN2 ~ tenu | kar2 [55x] = to insult, slander | cpd kar2 kar2 blow light up shine rise 52x GAN2tenu- GAN2tenu, kar2- kar2 [52x] = to blow; to light up, shine; to rise

120F9 120F9 GAN2 ~/~; 120FA 120FA GAN ~ +-ing ~

..

120FB 120FB GAR NINDA NIG2 thing GAR, NINDA [11296x] = bread, pastry, baked, food – determinative &ninda; bread / baked items | cf. less common12252 12252 NINDA2 bread food NINDA2 | gar(gar) [2505x] = place, to put, lay down; to give in place of something, replace; to posit (math.) | nig2(nig2) [1641x] = thing, possesion; something | nindan (ninda) [149x] = pole; unit of length; 12 ?? | ŠA2, | LIMMU = 4 | cf. 122E9

120FC 120FC GAR3 GAR3 [31x] = knob; a unit of measurement cf 120B5120B5 GA suckling young milk cowyoung suckling

120FD 120FD GASHAN unit of area GESTIN lady mistress GASHAN / GAŠAN = unit of area: one GAŠAN = 10 BÙRU (648000 m2) | Ugunû, BUR3gunû = lady, mistress

120FE 120FE GESHTIN GISH vineGESHTIN / geštin(geštin) [796x] = vine; wine|GIŠ+DIN; giš.geštin

120FF ~ x KUR

[various] GE | 1230B 1230B U vowel 10 ge14;12038 12038 ASH 1 one ge15, sagtak(santak);12079 12079 DISH 1 onege3, sagtak4(santak4);1203A 1203A ASH KABA TENUge22, santak2;12039 12039 ASH ZISA TENUge23, santak3 = stylus cuneus; (piece of) writing, copy, exemplar, written; blow; wound | 122B9 122B9 SHAR2 big black dot| True Etym.: tack, small nail [sag ~ = 12295 headed (tack)]

12100 12100 GI reed stylus cane tube 4900x GI (ge) = [4900x] reed (stylus), [place of reeds / reed stylus => writing => knowledge => power (KI-EN-GI / Sumer – Tigris Euphrates delta ...see note)], cane, tube | gin6(gi, gen6) [924x] = (to be) permanent; to confirm, establish (in legal contexts), verify; (to be) true; a quality designation; medium quality | ke2 | determinative reed names &gi;

..

Many historians and anthropologists provide strong circumstantial evidence to posit that Iraq's Ma'dan (Marshland) people share very strong links to the ancient Sumerians – the most ancient inhabitants of southern Iraq… [Waki]

Studies show that Marsh Arabs have a high concentration of Haplogroup J1[mainly North Africa] for males.

See Genetic footprints of Sumerians in Iraq Marshlands (pdf).

Also see lively discussion here.

IAE, the reed stylus did come from the Marshlands:

Marshland people of sthn Iraq

Major cpds

cpd KI-EN-GI Sumer 2 KI-EN-GI = Sumer [121A0 KI cosmic + 12097 EN lord + 12100 GI {not gir15! see notes}]

[ETCSL ex: Poem Išme-Dagan (c.2.5.4.01), line c25401.A.364]

cpd eme-gi tongue language 23xeme-gi [23x cf ~gir15 9x] = Sumerian language[12174 EME language + 12100 GI reed / write]

cpd gi-dub-ba stylus gi-dub-ba = reed tablet stylus [12100 GI reed stem + 1207E DUB tablet + 12040 BA divide tool]

12101 12101 GI GI x E; 12102 12102 GI ~ x U

1210312103 GI ~ +ing GI| GILIM, gi16 = to lie across; to be entwined [together]; to entwine, twist; rope of twined reeds; to block; (to be) difficult to understand | gel / kel

cpd cpd gi16-il entwined gi16-il = entwined (high up); foliage, forest

cpd gel-le-eg3 ENG3 bad evil forsake after halamgel-le-eg3(ES) = (to be) bad, evil; to forsake, forget; to destroy

[ES = emisal – female Sumerian]

12104 12104 GI4 turn return change GI4 [1485x] = to turn, return; to go around; to change status; to return (with claims in a legal case); to go back (on an agreement)

cpd cpd IM-MA-IGI-IN-GI4 return leering eye im-ma-ši-in-gi4 = return leering eye [1214E IM mud, storm + 12220 MA approach + 12146 IGI watch + 12154 IN abuse + 12104 gi4 return]

12104 GI4 turn return change12104 GI4 turn return changegi4-gi4 = conversation (replies); jewellry; diviner (hidden knowledge)

cpd mu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4 returnmu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4 = reply, advise, to and fro, conversation [1222C MU year, dear, name, son + 1223E NA pestle + 1224C NI comes to pass + 12141 IB oval + ~ x2; ETCSL c133.231]

cpd im-dab6-gi4-gi4 turn around im-dab6-gi4-gi4 = turning round and round [1214E IM mood, (copula) 1234F dab6 go around, + 12104 gi4 x2 turn, go around, return, change status; gi4 x 2 therefore:'turn round and round' ??]

12105 12105 GI ~/~; 12106 12106 GI4 ~ +-ing ~

12107 12107 GIDIM SUSANA-IS spirit ghost GIDIM [45x] = ghost

12108 12108 GIR2 GISH knife dagger UL-GAL sword GIR2, giš, gír [198x] = knife, dagger, razor, sword | ul4.gal = sword

12109 12109 GIR2 gunu ~ gunu | ul4 [39x] = to hasten, (be) quick; (to be) early | ul4 [12x] = terror | át=GÍRgunû [syll.]

PLMproto 12109 ul4 early terror Jaritz 11 Ryan depicts a "cocoon" => "surround" [Jaritz #11]

1210A 1210A GIR3 PIRIG foot GIR3, | giri3 (giri3) [10822x] = foot; path; via, by means of, under the authority of someone |

cpd cpd HUSH furious angry reddish ruddy 435x huš (hush) [435x] = furious, angry; (to be) reddish, ruddy

1210B 1210B GIR3 ~ x A + IGI; 1210C 1210C GIR3 ~ x GAN2 tenu; 1210D 1210D GIR3 ~ x IGI;

1210E 1210E GIR3 ~ x LU + IGI; 1210F 1210F GIR3 ~ x PA

12110 12110 GISAL GISAL | gešgisal(gešgisal) [19x] = rudder, oar; a roof part

12111 12111 GISH GESH tree woodGISH, GIŠ, GEŠ = tree, wood | giš.mi / gissu = shade [ giš= determinative &jic; before wooden objects]

12112 12112 GISH ~ +-ing ~; 12113 12113 GISH ~ x BAD

12114 12114 GISH ~ x TAK4; 12115 12115 GISH ~ tenu

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

12116 12116 GU GU [1850x] = cord, net; unretted flax stalks; backside

12117 12117 GU ~ +-ing ~

12118 12118 GU2 neck GU2, TIK | gun2(gu2) / talent [5551x] = unit of weight (1 mina = 60 shekels. 1 talent = 60 mina); load; yield; rent, tax, tribute | [753x] = (river) bank; side; neck

12119 12119 GU2 DUR strip GU2 x KAK, DUR = strip

1211A 1211A GU2 GU2 x KAK x IGI gunu

1211B 1211B GU2 ~ x NUN; 1211C 1211C GU2 ~ x SAL + TUG2; 1211D 1211D GU2 ~ gunu

1211E 1211E GUD GU4 ox cow GUD [17947x], gu4 = bull, ox; cattle; calf; lion | determinative &gud; cattle names

1211E evol ox head letter A

1211F 1211F GUD GUD x A + KUR

12120 12120 GUD AM wild bull ram GUD x KUR, AM | GU4AM = wild bull | UDUAM = wild ram

12121 12121 GUD GUD/GUD LUGAL

12122 12122 GUL SUN2 smite break GUL [518x], SUN2 = smite, break, to destroy; to break; to flatten; to carve, cut; to engrave

cf. cpd im-gu-lu-u8-a-bi destroy im-gu-lu-u8-a-bi = stirred up (to destroy) [1214E IM anger + 12116 GU backside + 121FB LU stirred up + 121C7 U8 Oh! + 12000 A bemoan + 12049 BI open]

12123 12123 GUM GUM [18x] = to crush | cf. 12252 12252 NINDA2 bread food

12124 12124 GUM GAZ GAS kill slayGUM x SHE. GAZ, GAS = kill, slay

12125 12125 GUR capacity unit 300 litres GUR [27945x!] = capacity unit (c.300 litres), measuring vessel | ŠE.GUR.E ??

12126 12126 GUR7 GUR7 [14x] = harvest, summer

12127 12127 GURUN fruit GURUN = fruit ??

12128 12128 GURUSH male worker GURUSH / guruš (guruš) [9902x] = male, young adult male; able-bodied worker | cf. 1219712197 KAL strong powerful; rare

12129 12129 HA KU6 fish HA / H breve capA | KU6 = fish

1212A 1212A HA ~ tenu; 1212B 1212B HA ~ gunu

1212C 1212C HAL HAL = [55x] divide, deal out, distribute; to perform an extispicy [shaman fortune readings of organs of sacrificed animals]; to open; a secret; to pour away; to sieve; to slink, crawl away; a qualification of grain .. cpd HAL-HA ~ + 12129 fish | stick; disease; crotch

1212D 1212D HI HI [2735x] h breve i hi [pron.throaty h] H breve capI (h brevea4), TÍ (dí), H breve capI (h breve e he) = mix | dug3(du10) [1587x] = (to be) good, good thing, goodness, sweet | dub3 [55x] = knee | cf. uQQ HUL HULU bad 13901x hul, hulu [13901x; uQQ] = bad

cpd cpd dug3-ga good dug3-ga = good [ ~ + 120B5 GA suckling, carry]

cpd dub3-nir ejaculate dub3-nir = emit [1212D dub3 knee + nir winnow]

cpd hi vegetable lettuce hi(-iz)sar [18x] = vegetable [ ~ + 122AC SAR determ. garden]

HI Variants:

1212E 1212E HI HI x ASH

1212F 1212F HI AR3 KIN MUR HAR ring HUR thick HUR-SAG mountain HI x ASH2 (AŠ2) | ur5 [1215x] = interest-bearing loan; debt; requital, favour | ur5 [190x] = he; that, this same; maid, female slave; one; corresponding (to one another); like (one another) | AR3, KÍN, MUR | H breve capAR = ring | H breve capUR = thick | H breve capUR+SAG = mountain

12130 12130 HI HI x BAD; 12131 12131 HI ~ x DISH; 12132 12132 HI ~ x GAD; 12133 12133 HI ~ x KIN;

12134 12134 HI ~ x NUN | AH breve cap (ah breve eh breve ih breve uh breve);

12135 12135 HIHI x (SHE)ŠE | dubur = horizon

12136 12136 HI ~ x U

12137 12137 HU MUSHEN bird HU (h breveu), mušen = bird | determinative &mucen; after bird names | bird laying egg, 12137 egg see 122DB

12138 12138 HUB2 left HUB2 / H breve capUB2 [3x] = foot | HUBI [7x] = acrobat | left cf 1218F KAB, GAB2, GUB3 [CVNE = compound verb nominal element]

12139 12139 HUB2 HUB2 x AN; 1213A 1213A HUB2 HUB2 x HAL; 1213B 1213B HUB2 HUB2 x KASKAL;

1213C 1213C HUB2 HUB2 x LISH; 1213D 1213D HUB2 HUB2 x UD

..

1213E 1213E HUL2 cucumber HUL2 / H breve capUL2, hul2 [347x] = joy .. cpd cpd shag4-hul2 happy 189x šag4-hul2(ša3-hul2) [189x] = to be happy [122AE heart + ~]| ukuš2 [39x] = cucumber

1213F 1213F I vowel 5 five numeric I (vowel) | IA = “5[five numeric] | [5x] hey!|[PLM]The ultimate basal meaning is "set of eyes"; and from it, the prototypical "pair", which, of course, is wholly arbitrary in view of "two hands/legs, etc.". Its use for "many" is probably an extension of the idea of a naturally occurring "set", regardless of the specific number: here, "five (fingers)"…

cpd cpd i-bi2 5 n fire eye carved eye 50xi-bi2[50x behind igi 1082x] = eye, (prob esp) carved eye (for statues)

[1240A] 1240A IA 5 five variant verticalÍ, IÁ, IA2 = 5, 300; 12140 12140 I A I A

12141 12141 IB IB = [108x]oval; [0x]profession

12142 12142 IDIM IDIM = blocked, heavy, spring (underground water) ??

12143 12143 IDIM ~/~ BUR; 12144 12144 IDIM ~/~ sq

12145 12145 IG GAL2 door exist qq IG [88x] door| gal2 / gal2 [3954x]= to be (there, at hand, available); to exist; to put, place [/class ?? cf. mi-iq-tum (miqtum, mi-gal2-tum) = social class], lay down; to havecf. copula |

cpdcpd im-mi-gal2 placedim-mi-gal2 = classified [1214E IM mood, is (copula) + 1222A MI black (high) + 12145 gal2 place, class]

12146 12146 IGI SHI LIM eye vision IGI [1133x], ŠI, LIM = eye, vision, watch, notice; carved eye (for statues) | igi [3906x] = first, earlier; front; face | True Etym.: ig-no-re / ig-no-rant (not know/see) <= ig(i) + 12261 nu no .. IGI is an awesome cuneiform design by an unknown scribe (appearing on tablets over 5000 ya), one of our eReader Top 5, and the sound / reading too, obviously would have caught the eye of plariarists down the millennia; there's also something fishy about our "I" and "eye" (sound and arrangement of letters).

cpds

cpd GURUM2 inspection provisions 726xgurum2 [726x] = inspection, provisions [ ~ + 1209F ERIN2 people, troops]

pad3 (reveal) cpds

cpd pad3 pa3 find nmae nominate 2313xpad3 [2313x] = to find, discover; to name, nominate [~ + 12292 RU fall; throw]

cpd mu-un-pad3-da reveal to the people mu-un-pad3-da = revealed to the people [1222C MU name + 12326 UN (KALAM = Sumer) + ~ + 12055 DA writing board]

cpd ga-ra-pad3-pad3 thresh out ga-ra-pad3-pad3 = like threshing grain will be revealed [120B5 GA bring + 1228F RA thresh + cpd pad3 reveal x2]

cpd ga-mu-ni-pad3 find reveal ga-mu-ni-in-pad3 = find (esp revenge) [120B5 GA carry + 1222C MU name + 1224C NI in the end + pad3 find]

cpd nu-um-ma-ni-in-pad3-de3 could not find nu-um-ma-ni-in-pad3-de3 = in all the lands could not find rapist (of Inana) [12261 NU not + 1231D UM approach, disease + 12220 MA land; approach + 1224C NI in time+ 12154 IN abuse, rape (rapist + pad3 find + 12248 de3 carry]

uQQ uQQ HUL HULU bad 13901x HUL, HULU [13901x] = bad, to destroy; (to be) bad-smelling, maloderous; (to be) bad, evil; (to be) slight, lightweight; (to be) false; (to be) criminal, dishonest; enemy; to raid; to strike the eyes; blinker

12147 12147 IGI DIB U3 LIBIR sleep dream IGI DIB | U3, Ù [6341x] = and; but; also | LIBIR = sleep, dream

cpd cpd lu2-u3 other him and lu2-u3 = other; man and [121FD lu2 man / him + 12147 u3 and]

12148 12148 IGI IGI RI | ar [syll.]; 12149 12149 IGI ~/~ SHIR/SHIR UD/UD

1214A 1214A IGI SIG 10000 unicodeIGIgunû, SIG7 = 10000 ; [62x] class of worker; [48x] to pluck hair or wool;(to be) trimmed, pruned

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

1214B 1214B ILIL = to be(come) high

1214C 1214C IL IL x GAN2 tenu

1214D 1214D IL2 IL2= [1362x] to raise, carry; (collect); [2x] worker; [0x] tax

1214E 1214E IM IM [680x] = clay, mud; tablet | determinative &im; made of clay | tumu, tum9 [49x] = wind | determinative &tum9; winds | [48x] rain, storm (/ steaming anger)- [weather / mood] | [73x] em = to be (is / was) copula variant cf 12228 | ni2

1214E evol 1214E evol 2 A curious development from EME [12174 tongue] "voice-emit" = "make a sound" is found in Jaritz #721, which depicts a "sail with rigging" [cf. harbinger for antenna, radio signal] and reads *îm(i) (for *îm(i)); it means "wind, storm-wind"; i.e. "moaning (of the wind), pars pro toto" [a part (taken) for the whole]. Strong support for this analysis is furnished by another meaning attached to this sign: "fear"; this is understandable for "moaning" but not for simply "wind" or "storm(-wind)". "Moaning" has attracted the reading ni2 [1224E1224E NI2 IM clay TU15 wind ISKUR storm god] "be afraid", "fear", which represents "snivel-stative-like" = "sniveling" = "fear".

cpd cpd IN-MA-NI-IN-SU-UB sexual kissing sucking licking im-ma-ni-in-su-ub = kissing [1214E IM storm + 12220 MA flow + 1224C NI quiver + 122E2 SU submerge, flesh + 12312 UB praise, ruin]

cpd IM-TE-A-NI him her -selfim-te-a-ni = himself / herself

1214F1214F IM IM x TAK4 | kid7 [6x] = cut; break off; pinch off; scratch; demolish | cf. uQQ kid2= [1.] do., ~ [4.]

12150 12150 IM ~ +-ing ~;

12151 12151 IM ~ opp ~ [??1224E ni2]; 12152 12152 IM sq ~ sq

12153 12153 IMIN 9 nine IMIN [31x] = “7″ (5+2) [seven numeric]

12154 12154 IN IN [31x] = abuse, rape | gir12

cpd cpd urud determ ha-zi-in axe Nergal hazin (urudha-zi-in/ urudaha-zi-in) [128x] = axe [determ 1234F + 12129 HA fish + 12363 ZI raise + ~] See Nergal's Axe c573.4

Nergal axe tablet s

12155 12155 IR ask IR, GAGgunû = plead, ask; divinate; perfume ?? | DIG = soft [6x] | cf. 1224C 1224C NI ZAL oil fat NI oil

12155 evol

12156 12156 ISH ISH (iš) [15x] = mountain; summer | kuš7(šuš3) [1587x]= high official, bureaucrat, civil servant

12157 12157 KA INIM word thing DU DUG4 speak ZU2 tooth KA () | KAG2 [1329x] = mouth | du11, dug4 [3878x]=speak- to speak, talk, say; to order; to do, perform [cpd: 12351 + dug4 = mating]; to negotiate| gu3, kir4 | inim (enim)[1329x] = word; matter (of affairs), thing | zú / zu2 = tooth; chew | kiri = nose

12157 evol mouth speak

cpd cpd dug4-ga-gu10 fuk dug4-ga-gu10 = mating [12157 dug4 / KA = perform + 120B5 ga suckling, carry + 1222C gu10 (MU) dear, name, son, phallus, year]

cpd dug4-ga-ni screwdug4-ga-ni = mating

cpd zu2-keshda compiler cutting edge n bind Enheduanna zu2-kešda = compiler, organizer [12157 zu2 cutting edge + 1219F kešda bind, organize]

"...The compiler of the tablets is Enheduana.
'My king, something has been created that no one has created before.'"
[see Dedicaton]
etcsl.orinst.ox...c4801.543

KA Variants:

12158 12158 KA NAG drink KA x A, nag / nag [400x]= to drink

12159 12159 KA KA x AD; 1215A 1215A KA ~ x AD + KU3; 1215B 1215B KA ~ x ASH2; 1215C 1215C KA ~ x BAD |11 = poison [OB]; 1215D 1215D KA ~ x BALAG | šeg11 [OB]; 1215E 1215E KA ~ x BAR; 1215F 1215F KA ~ x BI;

12160 12160 KA ~ x ERIN2 | syll.: | cf. 12128 copula, uQQ me3 battle combat 243xme3 = battle

12161 12161 KA ~ x ESH2; 12162 12162 KA ~ x GA | sub [11x #2 behind su-ub] = suck; rub; 12163 12163 KA ~ x GAL

12164 12164 KA KA x GAN2 tenu | PÙ / pu3 (bù) [21x] = mouth

12165 12165 KA GAR GU7 eat verb KA x GAR, GU7 [1672x] (KU2)= to eat

PLM: proto 12165 gu7 eat Jaritz 55 Ryan 12165 evol 2

12166 12166 KA ~ x GAR + SHA3 + A; 12167 12167 KA ~ x GI; 12168 12168 KA ~ x GIR2; 12169 12169 KA ~ x GISH + SAR; 1216A 1216A KA ~ x GISH +-ing GISH; 1216B 1216B KA ~ x GU; 1216C 1216C KA ~ x GUR7; 1216D 1216D KA ~ x IGI

1216E 1216E KA IM BUN2 thunder thunderstorm KA x IM, BUN2 = thunder, thunderstorm

1216F 1216F KA KAK KIR14 nose KA x KAK, KIR14 = nose

12170 12170 KA ~ x KI; 12171 12171 KA ~ x KID; 12172 12172 KA ~ x LI; 12173 12173 KA ~ x LU

12174 12174 KA ME EME tongue KA x ME [mouth x 12228ME to be] | EME [178x] = tongue, language [cf. True Etym. eme => phon-eme]

cpdcpd eme-gi tongue language 23xeme-gi [23x cf ~gir15 9x] = Sumerian language [12174 EME language + 12100 GI reed / write]

..

12175 12175 KA ~ x ME + DU; 12176 12176 KA ~ x ME + GI; 12177 12177 KA ~ x ME + TE;

12178 12178 KA ~ x MI; 12179 12179 KA ~ x MI + NUNUZ; 1217A 1217A KA ~ x NE

1217B 1217B KA NUN NUNDUM lip SU6 bread KA x NUN, NUNDUM } = lip, rim | SU6 = bread

1217C 1217C KA ~ x PI; 1217D 1217D KA ~ x RU; 1217E 1217E KA ~ x SA; 1217F 1217F KA ~ x SAR; 12180 12180 KA ~ x SHA; 12181 12181 KA ~ x SHE; 12182 12182 KA ~ x SHID; 12183 12183 KA ~ x SHU; 12184 12184 KA ~ x SIG; 12185 12185 KA ~ x SUHUR; 12186 12186 KA ~ x TAR; 12187 12187 KA ~ x U; 12188 12188 KA ~ x U2; 12189 12189 KA ~ x UD; 1218A 1218A KA ~ x UMUM x PA; 1218B 1218B KA ~ x USH; 1218C 1218C KA ~ x ZI

..

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

1218D 1218D KA KA2, kan4 [436x] = gate, door | cf. 1208D 1208D E2 house temple E2 house

1218E 1218E KA2 KA2 +-ing KA2

1218F 1218F KAB GAB2KAB, GAB2, GUB3, H breve capUB2 = left | cf. 12138

1219012190 KAD2 kad2 = qqq | “other letter” ?? | cf. 120FO 120F0 GAD KAD / GAD linen, flax; 122D9122D9 SHU2 šuš2 cover

12191 12191 KAD3 kad3 sedx = qqq | “other letter” ?? |

12192 12192 KAD4 kad4 = [1x!]fish; [9x] tie | peš5(pesh5)[53x] = innards; to breathe; grandson; descendant; to give birth (to); (to be) pregnant; pregnancy; to gather; (to be) thick; (to be) wide | also uQQ uQQ pesh thick breathe give birth peš [67x]

12193 12193 KAD5KAD, kad5 = [10x] to tie, gather; to itch, scratch; to weave a mat | banšur3 (banshur)= table ??

12194 12194 KAD5 KAD5/KAD5

12195 12195 KAK KAK, gag [126x] = arrowhead; peg, nail | DU, DU3 [cpd 12351 + ~ = mating], RU2 [7061x] | GAG (dù) = to build, make do, perform

cpd cpd sag-kak triangle cunteus 2x 12295 txt sang sag head-kak[2x] = cuneus; triangle[12295 sag head + ~ ]

12196 12196 KAK KAK x IGI gunu

12197 12197 KAL strong KAL, kalag = [102x] (to be) strong, powerful, mighty; to reinforce; to provide for .. cpds cpd kal-ga strong powerful 2280x kal-ga [2280x] ; kal-la [11x] | kal [389x] = (to be) rare, valuable | cf. 1212812128 GURUSH male workeryoung male

12198 12198 KAL ~ x BAD; 12199 12199 KAL ~ +-ing ~

1219A 1219A KAM2 KAM2, kám = prob. "th" e.g. 15th day… [ordinal marker; can't find in PSD et al – see waste of time below – penalty for not following most important rule of 'Scribe School'] cf. “5″ | change, desire ??

blood, semen, pus, blister and pustule A.1. diš na ta-at-ti-kám ša kàš gig |

girNin-urta-kám Cuneiform Texts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art

kam2 hunting

Cuneiform Documents ed RH Sack:

kam2 hunting th ordinal

UD. 15.KAM MU .[8].KAM

day. 15. ?? year .[8]. ??

15th day, [8th] year of

UD=day; MU = year

Therefore, all this bloody trouble just to find that

KAM2 is an ordinal marker (glyph/gloss) i.e. = "th"!!!

1219B 1219B KAM4 KAM4 | zubi [6x] = watercourse, canal, irrigation

[120F8] 120F8 GAN2kar2 [55x] = to insult, slander | 120F8 GAN2120F8 GAN2 GAN2tenu- GAN2tenu, kar2- kar2 [52x] = to blow; to light up, shine; to rise

1219C 1219C KASKAL KAS RASH journey DANNA mile KASKAL [705x], KAS, RAŠ = way, road; journey, caravan | DANNA = mile [distance]

1219D 1219D KASKAL ~ LAGAB x U/LAGAB x U; 1219E 1219E KASKAL ~/~ LAGAB x U/LAGAB x U

1219F 1219F KESH2KESH2 / keš2 (kešda) [853x] = to bind; gather; organize; assemble; compile => {computer tablet 5000 years later - and kešda looks like the first computer mainframe, brought by aliens of course!}

cpd zu2-keshda compiler cutting edge n bind Enheduanna zu2-kešda = compiler, organizer [12157 zu2 cutting edge + ~ ]

121A0 121A0 KI earth KIENGIRKI (gi5) [32379xxx!] = cosmic (under)world (cf ABZU) earth, land, place, ground, toward, country, lower, down below | determinative &ki; after place names |

cpd ki-mu-she3 place ki-gu10-še3 = designated place [121A0 KI place + 1222C MU name, son + 12365 še3 string]

121A1 121A1 KI KI x BAD; 121A2 121A2 KI KI x U; 121A3 121A3 KI KI x UD

121A4 121A4 KID field KID, lil2, ge2 (), ke4 = open field, steppe | gikid [509x] = (reed) mat | lil2 [92x] = wind; ghost; female demon, Lilitu / Lilith of "Bilgames (Gilgamesh) and the Netherworld"

121A5 121A5 KIN work procedure sickle KIN = work, procedure; sickle | GUR10 [470x] = to reap

121A6 121A6 KISAL KISAL [204x] = courtyard

121A7 121A7 KISH totality world KISH / KIŠ [14x] = totality, world

121A8 121A8 KISIM5 KISIM5 = sour milk [2x][common compound aux. cf12016 12016 AB2AB2 cow]

121A9 121A9 KISIM5 ~/~

121AA 121AA KU DUR2 TUKUL TUSH sit seated KU = backside | DAB5 [8723x] = to seize, take, hold; to bind; to envelop, overwhelm; to choose (by extispicy); to accept; to take charge of | TUKUL, TUŠ = sit, seated | cf. 12089 12089 DUR2

121AB 121AB KU KU/HI x ASH2 KU/HI x ASH2

121AC 121AC KU3 KUG pure GUSHKIN gold KU3, kug [1342x] = (to be) pure; [3875x] = metal, silver; (to be) bright, shiny | kug+an ~ azag = demon | kug+gi ~ guškin = gold | ~ + BABBAR = silver

121AC evol

cpdcpd kug-ga-na purekug-ga-na = pure [121AC KUG pure + 120B5 suckling, carry +1223E NA man, pestle, pounder]

121AD 121AD KU4KU4, kur9 [1489x] = to enter

121AE 121AE KU4 KU4

[122FB] 122FB TAR cutKUD, ku5 [1111x] = to break off, deduct; to separate, cut off; to cut; to incise; to decide; to make clear

[12129]12129 HA KU6 fishKU6 = (fresh) fish | ku6= determinative &ku6; after names of fish

121AF 121AF KU7 sweet KU7 / KU7 [65x]= (to be) good; (to be ) (honey-)sweet | KUD

121B0 121B0 KUL seed offspring KUL [59x] = to run | NUMUN [1219x] = seed cf. 1204412044 BAL GISH spindle BAL spindle

cpd cpd shag4-bala procreate to produce offspring šag4-bala(ša3-bal)[1016x] = procreate, to produce offspring [122AE šag4 heart + ~]

121B1 121B1 KUL gunu KUL gunu

121B2 121B2 KUN tail KUN [225x] = tail; canal outlet

121B3 121B3 KUR mountain land KUR [2494x] = mountain(s), land, country; underworld; east; easterner; east wind | determinative &kur; before mountains / countries

121B3 evol mountain

cpd cpd kur-kur-ra lands kur-kur-ra = mountains; lands [ ~ + 1228F RA aux.]

121B4 121B4 KUR opp KUR KUR opp KUR

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

121B5 121B5 KUSH2 cum cuntKUSHU2 / KUŠU2 = a paste; phlegm, mucus, sputum; foam, scum, cum; saliva, spittle; poison | creature, [12x] crab [the crabs!] [cuneus]

uQQ uQQ KUSH2 kusu tired troubled 149xKUSHU / KUŠU, kuš2 [149x] = tired, troubled

121B6 121B6 KWU318 KWU318 = grass

121B7 121B7 LA LA [65x] = bending over (backside); show, display; press; hang; supervise, check | [66x] a stand

PLMproto 121B7 bending over Jaritz 968 Ryan bend, carry, press together, crease together, pinch [of buttocks]…practice pederasty, take advantage of a woman through anal intercourse cf. Sukaletuda's rape of Inana L118 [Jaritz #968]; also Proto-Sumerian Halloran.

cpd lalamu | cf. 121F2 121F2 LAL LA2 bind la2 | cpd cpd GAL4-LA cuneusgal4-la = cuneus (from behind)

121B8 121B8 LAGAB block stump LAGAB| nigin2 [214x] = encircle, go around | [116x] block, stump | GUR4 (KUR4) [133x] = thick, big, feel big | KILIB [256x] = total | LUGUD 2 = short, tight | gir8(kir3) [2x!] = to break / pinch off | cpd cpd mu-un-nigin2-na-ta roam around 121B8 1222C name 12326 people 1223E incense 122EB much mu-un-nigin2-na-ta = to roam around – see MUGSAR 4-Way – Inana112a

LAGAB Variants:

121B9 121B9 LAGAB SUG AMBAR swamp LAGAB x A | SUG, AMBAR = swamp, marsh (encircled water) i.e. NÍGINxA = AMBAR | BUGIN, BUNIN

121BA 121BA LAGAB ~ x A + DA + HA; 121BB 121BB LAGAB ~ x A + GAR; 121BC 121BC LAGAB ~ x A + LAL;

121BD 121BD LAGAB ~ x AL; 121BE 121BE LAGAB ~ x AN; 121BF 121BF LAGAB ~ x ASH ZIDA tenu

121C0 121C0 LAGAB GIGIR cart LAGAB x BAD, GIGIR = cart

121C1 121C1 LAGAB ~ x BI; 121C2 121C2 LAGAB ~ x DAR; 121C3 121C3 LAGAB ~ x EN; 121C4 121C4 LAGAB ~ x GA; 121C5 121C5 LAGAB ~ x GAR; 121C6 121C6 LAGAB ~ x GUD;

121C7 121C7 LAGAB ~ x GUD + GUD | u8 [4425x] = sheep, ewe; Oh!, (a soothing expression) | cpd nu-u8-gig = priestess, high status woman, goddess / Inana

121C8 121C8 LAGAB ~ x HA;

121C9 121C9 LAGAB ~ x HAL | engur [45x] = (cosmic) waters [cf ABZU = abyss; cpd Ur-Nammu Ur-Engur aka Ur-Nammu / Ur-Namma / Ur-Gur]

121CA 121CA LAGAB ~ x HI x NUN; 121CB 121CB LAGAB ~ x IGI gunu; 121CC 121CC LAGAB ~ x IM; 121CD 121CD LAGAB ~ x IM + HA; 121CE 121CE LAGAB ~ x IM + LU; 121CF 121CF LAGAB ~ x KI; 121D0 121D0 LAGAB ~ x KIN; 121D1 121D1 LAGAB ~ x KU3; 121D2 121D2 LAGAB ~ x KUL; 121D3 121D3 LAGAB ~ x KUL + HI + A; 121D4 121D4 LAGAB ~ x ~ ; 121D5 121D5 LAGAB ~ x LISH; 121D6121D6 LAGAB~ x LU; 121D7 121D7 LAGAB ~ x LUL; 121D8 121D8 LAGAB ~ x ME; 121D9 121D9 LAGAB ~ x ME + EN; 121DA 121DA LAGAB ~ x MUSH; 121DB 121DB LAGAB ~ x NE; 121DC 121DC LAGAB ~ x SHE + SUM; 121DD 121DD LAGAB ~ x SHITA + GISH + ERIN2; 121DE 121DE LAGAB ~ x SHITA + GISH tenu; 121DF 121DF LAGAB ~ x SHU2; 121E0 121E0 LAGAB ~ x SHU2 + SHU2; 121E1 121E1 LAGAB ~ x SUM; 121E2 121E2 LAGAB ~ x TAG; 121E3 121E3 LAGAB ~ x TAK4; 121E4 121E4 LAGAB ~ x TE + A + SU + NA

121E5 121E5 LAGAB PU GIGIR wagon TUL source LAGAB x U | NÍGINxBÙR (U) = pú (pu2) [95x] = waterwell / hole, pit; depth (encircled area+hole) lower course, footing; cistern; fish pond; source (of river) | TÚL = source ?? | GÍGIR = wagon??

121E6 121E6 LAGAB ~ x U + A; 121E7 121E7 LAGAB ~ x U + U + U; 121E8 121E8 LAGAB ~ x U2 + ASH;

121E9 121E9 LAGAB ~ x UD; 121EA 121EA LAGAB ~ x USH; 121EB 121EB LAGAB sq~ sq

cf. cpd cpd sipad sipa shepherd 2463x 2SIPAD, sipa [2463x] = shepherd

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

121EC 121EC LAGAR sharmanLAGAR [21x] = sharman, priest / priestess

121ED 121ED LAGAR ~ x SHE; 121EE 121EE LAGAR ~ x SHE + SUM;

121EF 121EF LAGAR gunu ~ gunu; 121F0 121F0 LAGAR ~ gunu/~ gunu SHE

121F1 121F1 LAHSHU LAHSHU qqq | cf. 122E4 122E4 SUD pull pull | lahhušu [0x] = pot ; 1226312263 NUN lardNUN | 122C3silag 0x body part

121F2 121F2 LAL LA2 bind LAL, LA2 [9977x] = (to be) small, little; minus sign; (to be) insignificant, low-value; dimunition

121F3 121F3 LAL LAL x LAL

121F4 121F4 LAM LAM [47x] = to flourish; to make grow luxuriantly

121F5 121F5 LAM ~ x KUR; 121F6 121F6 LAM ~ x KUR + RU

121F7 121F7 LI LI / LE, gub2 [4x] = to bathe, wash; [49x] branch, twig (juniper shrub); pure

121F8 121F8 LIL idiot LIL [8x] = fool, idiot | lú+lil

121F9 121F9 LIMMU2 4 four number LIMMU2[1759x] = 4 ["4" four numeric; 1235D LIMMU5 4 four 11x]

121FA 121FA LISH DILI2 spoon bowl LISH / LIŠ, DILIM2, DILI2 [28x] = spoon, balance pan, bowl

121FB 121FB LU DIB DAB grasp UDU sheep LU | udu [28818xxx!] = sheep; [185x] (to be) abundant, to heap up; [130x] to disturb, stir up; to cover completely; to mix | DIB, DAB = grasp | [cf 12073 12073 DIB DAB] | determinative &udu; sheep / goats

cpd cpd sipad sipa shepherd 2463x 2sipad (sipa) [2463x] = shepherd [1227A PA overseer + 121FB UDU sheep]

121FC 121FC-LU LU x BAD

121FD 121FD LU2 man - engine of spaceship LU2 [12429xxx!] = man (him); ruler [alien spaceships!]; person; who(m), which; (s)he who, that which; of; | determinative &lu2; before male stuff

LU2 Variants:

121FE 121FE LU2 ~ x AL ; 121FF 121FF LU2 ~ x BAD; 12200 12200 LU2 ~ x ESH2; 12201 12201 LU2 ~ x ESH2 tenu;

1220212202 LU2 ~ x GAN2 tenu | šaga (šaga) [6x] =a wronged person; (to be) slain; (to be) afflicted, oppressed

12203 12203 LU2~ x HI x BAD; 12204 12204 LU2 ~ x IM; 12205 12205 LU2 ~ x KAD2; 12206 12206 LU2 ~ x KAD3; 12207 12207 LU2 ~ x KAD3 + ASH; 12208 12208 LU2 ~ x KI; 12209 12209 LU2 ~ x LA + ASH; 1220A 1220A LU2 ~ x LAGAB; 1220B 1220B LU2 ~ x ME + EN; 1220C 1220C LU2 ~ x NE; 1220D 1220D LU2 ~ x NU; 1220E 1220E LU2 ~ x SI + ASH; 1220F 1220F LU2 ~ x SIK2 + BU; 12210 12210 LU2 ~ x TUG2; 12211 12211 LU2 ~ tenu ; 12212 12212 LU2 ~ +-ing ~; 12213 12213 LU2 ~ opp ~; 12214 12214 LU2 sq ~ sq; 12215 12215 LU2 ~ sheshig

..

12216 12216 LU3 LU3 [18x] = to disturb, stir up; to cover completely; to mix

12217 12217 LUGAL King in a spaceship manLUGAL [24522xxx!] = king [The "King of the Earthlings" rides around in a spaceship man!]

True Etym.: 12217 LUGAL is made from 121FD121FD LU2 man - engine of spaceship LU2 man + 120F2120F2 GAL big great GAL big => big man => king (sometimes scribes reverse signs – see Foxvog) cf. Latin leg-is; and lu/ru interchangeability => rugal => English "regal", Latin regalis

LUGAL Variants:

12218 12218 LUGAL ~/~; 12219 12219 LUGAL ~ opp ~; 1221A 1221A LUGAL ~ sheshig

1221B 1221B LUH SUKKAL bureaucrat LUH, LUH breve cap, LAH breve cap3, SUKKAL [3469x] = secretary, civil servant, bureaucrat, official | luh [164x] = to clean, wash

1221C 1221C LUL NAR musician LUL [133x] = false, criminal | NAR = song / musician ??

1221D 1221D LUM LUM [107x] = (to be) full, replete, satisfied (with); (to be) grown (tall); to fruit; (to be) fructified; to shine

1221E 1221E LUM LUM/LUM; 1221F 1221F LUM LUM/LUM GAR/GAR

12220 12220 MA MA = [169x] (come in to) land (like bird; fly in), approach; go, flow (phallus, come), fig tree, house [?? secondary in each]

12221 12221 MA MA x TAK4

12222 12222 MA HASHUR apple tree MA, gunu / gunû, H breve capH breve capUR / HASHHUR = apple (tree)

12223 12223 MA2 MA2 / MA2 [5559x]= ship, boat

12224 12224 MAH great MAH / MAH breve cap [3271x] = to be great, exalted

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

12225 12225 MAR MAR = [13x]smear – True Etym.: mar; [8x] louse, worm, parasite; [5x] winnow

12226 12226 MASH half MASHDA twin -cross-MASH / maš [726x] = goat | maš [1452x] = interest (on a loan); an irrigation tax | half; LÚ+MÁŠDA = poor man | MAŠ.EN.GAG = palace dependant | MAŠD+TAB+BA = twin cf. 12047 12047 BAR half

12227 12227 MASH2 family relative MASH2 / maš2 [10699xx] = goat; extispicy – sacrificial animal for omens | family, relative | MAŠ2+GAL = buck, billygoat

12228 12228 ME I am to be copula ME, àm [2860x] = I am, to be (is / was) | [750x] being, divine properties enabling cosmic activity; rite; office [copula | True Etymology: i.men cf. I am | IŠIB = 100; set, take | uQQuQQ MESH plural marker MEŠ / mesh = plural marker

[PLM]12228 evolJaritz #889 depicts a "short vertical line abutting a longer horizontal line at its midpoint". It means "speak, call, tongue, middle, converse". Graphic convention designed to bring out the idea of "middle", the position associated in early thinking with the placement of the tongue in the mouth. Somewhat surprisingly, this simple element has been identified for PIE as *me, "in the middle, into the middle". *me is not regarded as meaning "tongue"; that meaning has been taken by a derivation from it, eme (for *îmî) [1217412174 KA ME EME tongue] another reading of the same sign, which represents "teeth-middle" = "tongue". This compound can be found in PIE with *empi-, "mosquito", an animal that definitely deserves to be named for its tongue.

uQQ uQQ me3 battle combat 243x me3 [243x]= battle, combat cf. 12228 12228 ME I am to be copula copula

12229 12229 MES cylinder seal sealed tablet black Gilgamesh MES, meš3 [56x] black [Gilgamesh was black! nextdoor on list to 1222A MI / gig2 main black]; [29x] = hero; (to be) manly; young man cf. Enki and the world order c113.221, Ninurta's exploits c162.310, Samsu-iluna & Inana c2831.15 [NB computerized transl no ordinary 'tree' more like 'hero']) | 12229 txt nges superscriptmes (gešmes, 12229 txt nges superscriptmeš3) [81x]= tree| kišib (-la2) [36x] = cylinder seal, sealed tablet; kišib-rah2 .. with aux. = to seal

cf. 1231D1231D UM reed rope[less vertical ge than 12229] UM reed (stylus?) stem + 4 var;

1207E1207E DUB clay tablet DUBSAR DUB tablet | kišib3 [17468x] = cylinder seal, sealed tablet

..

cpd cpd BIL-GA-MESH black hero Gilgamesh BIL.GA.MEŠ (Sumerian: Bilgamesh; Akkad.: Gilgamesh) black hero of oldest written epic (quest for immortality) [1224B BIL2 burnt + 120B5 GA young (bull) + 12229 mes (meš3) black hero (next on the sign list is the more common black sign 1222A1222A MI black s MI) ; and 1207E dub 1207E DUB clay tablet DUBSAR s able to write = power connotation)]

..

1222A 1222A MI GE6 black sag gig-ga MI [<=cun-sign | Sumerian=>] ge6, giggi (ge6), gi6, gi6, gig2 [941x] = to be black, night | ge/gi same as 12100 reed stylus => writing => knowledge => power = black | upper / high (class) cf. mi-iq-tum (miqtum, mi-h breveal2-tum) = social class

1222A MI gig2 black Inana black braided hair 7400CT

cf. dome of night sky – cpdcpd ul4-he2 or GAN firmament vault of the sky ul4-he2 firmament, vault of sky

[12109 terror + 120F6 boundless]

..

Sumerians called themselves black people cpd Black Sumerians ùg3-sag-gíg2-ga[12326 ùg3 people (KALAM Sumer) + 12295 sag head + 1222A gíg2 black + 120B5 ga carry / aux.]see tablet examples; not just black plebs either, the "First professors are BLACK!" cpd um-mi-a expert master craftsman scholar is BLACK 142x um-mi-a = scholar, expert, craftsman [scholar 1231D UM reed stem (stylus/writing symbol, 1207E tablet var) + 1222AMI black + 12000 progeny]

cpd um-mi-a first professors are BLACK psd 14 over 5000ya

..

cpd digir dim3-mi-ir black god

And even Gilgamesh is black, see previous entry 12229

..

kiengi black cuneiform

cpd cpd GIG sick troublesome black-pearl 313x GIG = 1222A black + 1226D beads = gig[313x] = sick, troublesome | cpd NUGIG nu-u8-gig priestess high status women (nugig) nu-u8-gig = [black Sumerian woman =] priestess, high status woman, goddess / Inana

1222B 1222B MIN 2 two MIN [959x] = 2 ["2" two numeric; cf. horiz var122F0122F0 MIN TAB 2 two0x as MIN 2, but as TAB 122F0 double, repeat, partner 740x]

1222C 1222C MU year MU = [43667xxx!] year | mu = [2994x] name; line of text; son | MUH breve capALDIM / muhaldim[2185x] =cook | mu (ES) = phallus | gu10 = "dear one" suffix / honorific | determinative &mu; before words for items made of wood (Emesal)

cpdcpd zag-mu new year cycle beginning 180xzag-mu [180x] = new year; beginning of cycle [12360 ZAG boundary + ~]

1222D1222D MU MU/MU | tah breve / tah (dah) [274x]= to add, increase

1222E 1222E MUG MUG [162x] = wool [pubic ?? next to MU phallus]; to hew out, hollow out; to engrave

cpdcpd tug2 determ mug kind of garmenttug2-mug[179x] = a kind of garment [determ 12306 tug2 garment + ~]

1222F 1222F MUG MUGgunu, zadim; za-dim2 [128x] = stone-cutter; bow-maker

12230 12230 MUNSUB hairMUNSUB [5x] = hair, barber

12231 12231 MURGU2 MURGU2, egir6(MURGU2)(egir6) = [10x] back, estate, inheritance | mur7 [0x] = excrement / shit

12232 12232 MUSH snake MUSH (MUŠ) [192x] = snake

12233 12233 MUSH ~ x A; 12234 12234 MUSH ~ x KUR; 12235 12235 MUSH ~ x ZA

12236 12236 MUSH snake MUSH / MUSH (MUŠ) RI8 = snake

12237 12237 MUSH ~/~ x A + NA; 12238 12238 MUSH ~ +-ing MUSH

12239 12239 INANNA goddess MUSH3 / MUŠ3 = [107x] face, appearance; [81x] flat space, holy area; [3x] curdle | sed6 (šed12) [11x #3 behind sed4] = cold; winter .. cpdcpd sed4 cold cool wintersed4(še17, šed10)[34x; ~ + 12072 well-being] |MUŠ3 INANNA, INNIN = goddess | 1202D 1202D AN sky god12239 INANNA goddessAN+ MUŠ3 = dinana / Inana

1223A 1223A MUSH3 SED9 winter hibernate rest contented MUSH3 / MUŠ3 x A | se24, sed3, še12, šed9 = winter, hibernate, rest, be content

1223B 1223B MUSH3 ~ x A + DI; 1223C 1223C MUSH3 ~ x DI; 1223D 1223D MUSH3 ~gunu

1223E 1223E NA NA, nigna = [114x] incense (burner); man; [32x] stone; pestle, pounder

cpd cpd ma-na mina unit of weight 9459x ma-na / mina [9459x] = unit of weight; 1 mina = 60 shekels, 1 talent = 60 mina [3600 shekels]

1223F 1223F NA2 NU2 bed NA2, NU2[419x]= to lie down (of people); to lay down; to be ill;bed | NUD | cf. 12029 12029 ALAN statue icon icon

cpd cpd BA-NA2 lie down ba-na2 = 12040 BA split, open + ~

12240 12240 NAGA NAG2 NISABA tornado NAGA, naga [2521x] = potash (potassium compound often used in agriculture); soap | NAG2, NISABA2 = tornado

cpd cpd d-nisaba za3-mi2 DINGIR-NAGA-ZAG-SAL Nisaba goddess of writing DINGIR.NAGA.ZAG.SAL,dnisaba za3-mi2 = Nisaba praised [ 1202D AN god + 12240 NAGA + 12360 za3 + 122A9mi2 cuneus]

12241 12241 NAGA ~ INVERTED; 12242 12242 NAGA ~ x SHU tenu; 12243 12243 NAGA ~ opp ~

12244 12244 NAGAR carpenter NAGAR [666x] = carpenter

12245 12245 NAM NUTILLU NAM, nutillu | buru5 = [4x] locust

12246 12246 NAMTAR destiny NAM = [567x] determined order; will, testament; fate, destiny | bir5 [35x incl 12 ED IIIa] = locust | sin2 = district | sim = [var < 16x] smell, sniff, filter, swallow | nam-tar = destiny | nam-ra = booty, spoils, captive

cpdcpd nam-mah author of oldest math table 7500CT Shuruppag 122B9nam-mah = NAMMAH, earliest known mathematician, see 122B9 [ ~ + 12224 mah great]

12247 12247 NAM2 NAM2 = prefix lord / official; thought, planning ??

12248 12248 NE NE, (bí / bi2) | de3 [25x] bring / carry (collect) | 12248 txt seg6 seng6 (še6, šeg6) [261x] = to cook; to dry a field | izi = [257x] fire (pottery), brazier | kum2 [78x] = (to be) hot | bi2 in compounds | nen, ne, ne-en, ne-e [101x] = this, these | bil [7x] = burn

12248 evol Jaritz #339 burning torch

cpds:

cpd NE-A refine NE-A = refine [ ~ + 12000 A water]

cpd il2-i-de3 raise il2-i-de3 = collect firewood [1214D il2 carry + 1213F I "5" + 12248 de3 collect]

cpd NE SU-UB on fire kissing sucking fukg NE-SU-UB = to be on fire, kissing [ ~ + 122E2 SU submerge, flesh + 12312 UB praise, ruin]

1224912249 NE NE x A | 13 [0x] = (to be) cold | cf. 12239 sed4cold; winter

1224A 1224A NE NE x UD

1224B 1224B NE GIBIL new NE sheshig / šešig, BIL2 | gibil [671x] = new, renew; firewood | bil2 [43x] = burn / burnt

cpd cpd BIL-GA-MESH black hero Gilgamesh BIL.GA.MEŠ (Sumerian: Bilgamesh [cf. Billjim!]; Akkad.: Gilgamesh) black hero of oldest written epic [1224B BIL2 burnt + 120B5 GA young (bull) + 12229 mes(meš) black hero]

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

1224C 1224C NI ZAL oil fat NI <= cun-sign | Sumerian => Ì / i3, IÀ / ia3, I, lí /li2| (syll.: bè, lé, lí, né) i3 =[8654x] oil; butter; container for oil vegetable oil, fat | ZAL [2798x] = to pass time; to get up early; to finish, come to an end (come to pass); to dissolve, melt, disintegrate, break down, collapse; to quake; sensual connotation | cpdcpd NA4 stone na4 [527x] = stone; stone weight | determinative &na4; stones | cf. 12155 12155 IR ask IR ask; perfume

1224C evol

1224D 1224D NI NI x E

1224E 1224E NI2 IM clay TU15 wind ISKUR storm god NI2, | ni2 [370x] = self | ni2 [322x] = fear, aura | cf. 1214E1214E IM im = clay, mud; tablet; copula | TU15 = wind cf. dIŠKUR storm god

cpd cpd ni2-bi-a itself ni2-bi-a = itself / themselves / all together (1224E ni2 + 12049 BI + 12000 A)

[ETCSL:ni2=self | ni2-bi=itself / themselves | ni2-gu10=myself | ni2-te-a-ni=himself / herself | ni2-zu=yourself ]

uQQuQQ SHA2 NIG syllabary sh-NÍG, šá [syllabary]

1224F 1224F NIM DIH3 thorny plant NIN-LAL3 bee ELAM NIM = [79x] fly, insect, buzz; [31x] (to be) high, elevated; (to be) early; easterner; suffix plant | 1224F txt DIH3, dih3[132x]= thorny weed | NIN+LAL3 = bee| NUM | KUR | cpd ELAM eq NIM ELAMKI = Elam

1225012250 tum3 bring NIM x GAN2 tenu | tum3 [144x] = bring

12251 12251 NIM NIM x GAR + GAN2 tenu

12252 12252 NINDA2 bread food NINDA2 = [39x] seed-funnel 12252 evol[cf. hand-scoop Jaritz #347 see 12258 below]; fish ??; breeding bull | INDA = [0x!] bread, food | cf. much more common 120FB 120FB GAR NINDA NIG2 thing NINDA [11296x]

NINDA2 Variants

12253 12253 NINDA2 buy price ~ x AN, ŠAM3 = buy, price ; 12254 12254 NINDA2 ~ x ASH; 12255 12255 NINDA2 ~ x ASH + ASH;

12256 12256 NINDA2 ~ x GUD ; 12257 12257 NINDA2 ~ x ME + GAN2 tenu

12258 12258 NINDA2 NINDA2 x NE, RAM, AG2 / AG2 (ám) = darling; ag2 [88x #2 behind 120FB 120FB GAR NINDA NIG2 thingnig2 1542x] thing, possession; measure ??

12258 evol Jaritz #362 a combination sign which, rather incongruously, depicts a ”hand-scoop" (#347) enclosing #339 [12248 NE] burning torch, signifying the "heat of passionate love" [encapsulated fire].

cpd cpd ki-ag2 love 666x ki-ag2(ki-ag2) [666x] = to love[121A0 KI cosmic world + 12258 ag2 heat of passionate love]

12259 12259 NINDA2 ~ x NUN

1225A 1225A NINDA2 NINDA2 x SHE / ŠE, ŠAM2(NINDA2x ŠE + A AN variants) = price

1225B 1225B NINDA2 ~ x SHE + A AN; 1225C 1225C NINDA2 ~ x SHE + ASH; 1225D 1225D NINDA2 ~ x SHE + ASH + ASH;

1225E 1225E NINDA2 ~ x U2 + ASH; 1225F 1225F NINDA2 ~ x USH

..

12260 12260 NISAG middle NISAG, MURU2, MURUB4 [44x] = middle; cuneus | cf. 12319 12319 murub6 cuneus rearmurub6(muru13) ; cpd MURUB2 cuneus re 12260 MURUB6 murub2; backside, rump; knob; mouth; gate (of city or large building); space between, distance; link; hips | ITIgunû

12261 12261 NU not nonexistent NU [785x] = not (negation: “no”, negative); without, un-; genitals; sperm; offspring | NU-GAL2 = nonexistent | NU-TIL = incomplete | True Etym. nu => no

12262 12262 NU11 NU11 | gešnu (gešnu) [3x] = light | duri [0x] = male; to be virile

12263 12263 NUN lard NUN = [1x!] guidance (eridu) | [656x] prince; (as attribute) foremost, best | lard | cpd NUN-KI EriduNUN KI = Eridu

NUN Variants

12264 12264 NUN ~ LAGAR x GAR; 12265 12265 NUN ~ LAGAR x MASH; 12266 12266 NUN ~ LAGAR x SAL;

1226712267 NUN ~ LAGAR x SAL/~ LAGAR x SAL; 1226812268 NUN ~ LAGAR x USH; 1226912269 NUN ~ tenu

1226A 1226A NUN NIR-GAL2 strong powerful NUN/NUN, NIR = NIR.GAL2 = strong, powerful

1226B 1226B NUN ~ +-ing ~; 1226C 1226C NUN ~ +-ing ~ LAGAR/LAGAR

1226D 1226D NUNUZ ERIN2 RIN pearl qq NUNUZ [109x], ERIN2, RÍN = egg (shape), bead, pearl ??

NUNUZ (so eggs + cow 12016 / sour milk 121A8 = produce farm) Variants:

1226E 1226E NUNUZ ~ AB2 x ASHGAB; 1226F 1226F NUNUZ ~ AB2 x BI; 12270 12270 NUNUZ ~ AB2 x DUG; 12271 12271 NUNUZ ~ AB2 x GUD ; 12272 12272 NUNUZ ~ AB2 x IGI gunu; 12273 12273 NUNUZ ~ AB2 x KAD3;

1227412274 NUNUZ ~ AB2 x LA | lah brevetan (lahtan) [19x] = beer vat

12275 12275 NUNUZ ~ AB2 x NE; 12276 12276 NUNUZ ~ AB2 x SILA3; 12277 12277 NUNUZ ~ AB2 x U2; 12278 12278 NUNUZ ~ KISIM5 x BI; 12279 12279 NUNUZ ~ KISIM5 x BI U

..

1227A 1227A PAN GIDRU sceptre UGULA overseer GARZA office PA | ugula = [9794x] foreman, overseer | bá [293x]= wing; branch, frond | gidru / gidri = [129x] sceptre | sìg = to beat | garza = office | SIG hit e.g. cpd SIG-UZU ~ TUD beat whip

1227B 1227B PAD SUK piecePAD, ŠUK /SHUK, šukur2/shukur2(šuk, šuku) = [1335x] food allocation, ration | [56x] to break (into bits); pierce

1227C 1227C PAN PAN, tir5[63x]= bow; geometric figure {PSD} | cf bow-maker, PANA = bow, arrow

1227D1227D PAP KUR2 unit capacity vessel PAP, KUR2 [607x] = unit of capacity based on a vessel size; PAP = [86x] relation; first and foremost, pre-eminent; father; male, virile; brother | PAB = protect | PA5 = canal | cpd cpd DIM to check approach 13xDIM [13x] = to check; to approach

1227E 1227E PESH2 PISH mouse PESH2 / PEŠ2, PIŠ2 [55x] = mouse

1227F 1227F PI TAL2 GESHTU ear PI (bì) [269x] tal2, | geshtu / geštu, geshtug / geštug = ear, hear, reason, intelligence, wisdom, understanding

PI Variants:

12280 12280 PI ~ x A; 12281 12281 PI ~ x AB; 12282 12282 PI ~ x BI; 12283 12283 PI ~ x BU; 12284 12284 PI ~ x E; 12285 12285 PI ~ x I; 12286 12286 PI ~ x IB; 12287 12287 PI ~ x U; 12288 12288 PI ~ x U2; 12289 12289 PI ~ +-ing PI

..

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

1228A 1228A PIRIG pirig lion PIRIG (PIRIG) [198x]= lion

1228B 1228B PIRIG PIRIG (PIRIG) x KAL, NIB = leopard

1228C 1228C PIRIG PIRIG (PIRIG) x UD, UG = tiger

1228D 1228D PIRIG PIRIG (PIRIG) x ZA, AZ, AS = bear

1228E 1228E PIRIG PIRIG (PIRIG) opp PIRIG

1228F 1228F strike RA, rah2[597x] = to beat, kill; to break, crush; to flood; to thresh (grain with a flail) | aux. ~ -ra | see also notes on evolution [PLM (Patrick Ryan '2008)]: 1228F evolwheel rim with four spokes over curled horn suggests "back" over "tall"; also "stir"; emphasizes flood

cpd cpd IM-TA-UD.DU-A-RAim-ta-e3-a-ra = sunrise [1214E IM mood + 122EB TA much + cpd UD-DU sunrise + 12000 A bemoan + 1228F RA beat thresh]

12290 12290 RAB RAB, raba [37x] = clamp; neck stock; hoop ??

12291 12291 RI RI = [475x]to lay down, cast, place; to set in place, imbue; to lean on; to impose; to throw down; to release, let go; to walk along; to pour out; to lead away | re [130x] = “that” | auxiliary verb, sar-ri / sar-re 122AC |distant | cf. 12137 12137 HU MUSHEN bird

12292 12292 RU SHUB fall defeat RU, shub / šub [495x] = fall, defeat; throw (boomerang) 12292 evol boomerang throw

12293 12293 SA sinew muscle SA = braided, string, net, sinew, muscle | determinative &sa; before braided items

12294 12294 SAG SAG head SAG, 12295 txt sang sag head, nutillu = head [rare, always 12295]

sag Variants:

12295 12295 SAG head SAG GIG-GA SAG, 12295 txt sang sag head(pron. sang), SUR14 [3582x ]= head; person / people; capital

12295 evol head

cpd cpd sag-ga2 head basket cpd txt sang sag-ga2 head basket /sag-ga2 = head basket [12295 sag head + 120B7 ga2 basket]

12296 12296 SAG ~ x A; 12297 12297 SAG ~ x DU; 12298 12298 SAG ~ x DUB; 12299 12299 SAG ~ x HA; 1229A 1229A SAG ~ x KAK; 1229B 1229B SAG ~ x KUR; 1229C 1229C SAG ~ x LUM; 1229D 1229D SAG ~ x MI; 1229E 1229E SAG ~ x NUN; 1229F 1229F SAG ~ x SAL; 122A0 122A0 SAG ~ x SHID; 122A1 122A1 SAG ~ x TAB; 122A2 122A2 SAG ~ x U2; 122A3 122A3 SAG ~ x UB; 122A4 122A4 SAG ~ x UM; 122A5 122A5 SAG ~ x UR; 122A6 122A6 SAG ~ x USH; 122A7 122A7 SAG ~/~; 122A8 122A8 SAG gunu ~ gunu

..

122A9 122A9 SAL MUG GALA MUNUS MUGSAR SAL, mug, gal4 (gala), murub (muru13), munus [3079x] = cuneus 122A9 SAL MUG GALA MUNUS 2 apotheosis of woman, goddess, matriarch, queen | mi2 = [13x - all ED IIIb] praise; CVNE | determinative before female names &f;

The scribes who invented writing 5000 years ago clearly had no inhibitions about the basis for the design of their cuneiform, nor should we bowdlerize [etym.: Thomas Bowdler expurgated William Shakespeare (aka Edward de Vere) '1822] for hypocritical luddites / puritans who are still happy to plagiarize the technology revolution started by the Sumerians, and it may well have been the inspiration for the whole style ~ cunei.form = cuneus writing.

mugsar logo4

Scratching and dragging a pointed stylus would not have been near as effective and enduring for us to be able to read now. And it can be no coincidence that the Sumerian apotheosis of "woman" has come down to us as the first letter of vagina.

Germaine Greer says it's a powerful symbol – BBC Balderdash and Piffle "2007 (see Youtube; also here. Unfortunately none are aware of the very first significance bestowed by the Sumerians.

Enheduanna – earliest known author and poet was female

And not only were the first scholars black, the earliest known author and poet was female (and most likely black), Enheduanna cpd Enheduanna oldest known author was female 7715-7750CT (2285-2250 plag) … Westenholz edited a fragmentary hymn dedicated to Enheduanna indicating her apotheosis… [Wik]; she was totally lost to history until her tablets were unearthed in '1926 [Nisaba] by Leonard Woolley [born '1880 in 13 Southwold Road just around the corner from King's Place (now BSix College Brooke House - East London Hackney-Stratford where the '2012 Olympics Games were held) where Edward de Vere wrote 'Shake-speares Sonnets' - only because he was setup by another forgotten proto-feminist, 2nd wife Elizabeth Trentham]; she represented a strong and creative personality, an educated woman, and one who fulfilled diverse roles in a complex society, not unlike women's aspirations today…[Jane Roberts]; “My goddess gave birth to your god” … Assyriologist William Hallo referred to her as “The Sumerian Shakespeare”. But given that she preceded Shakespeare by several thousand years, it might be more apt to dub the bard “The English Enheduanna” [Kristin Agudelo's notablewomen]; or “Enheduanna of Tudor Literature” [chickhistory]; ironically also lost to history is Susan de Vere, Shakespeare's Daughter and Producer of the First Folio.

"My king, something has been created that no one has created before."

Enheduanna 7715-7750CT earliest known author was female 458

..

cpds:

cpd emi e2-mi2 queens household emi (e2-mi2) [219x] = queen's household [1208D e2 house+ 122A9 mi2 cuneus]

cpd NIN lady mistress 1467x NIN = lady, mistress [122A9 cuneus +12306garment]; e5 = princely ?? | e5, ereš

cpd nin9 sister 247xnin9 [247x] = sister[ ~ +121AAku backside]

cpd mussa mi2-us2-sa2 son daughter in lawmussa(mi2-us2-sa2) [53x] = son / daughter in-law [122A9 mi2 cuneus; praise + 12351 us2 phallus + 12072 sa2 law]

cpd geme2 slave woman 4025xgeme2 [4025x] = slave woman [~ +121B3mountains]

cpd MURUB2 cuneus re 12260 MURUB6MURUB2 = cuneus, backside [ ~ + 121EC priestess] cf. 1231912319 murub6 cuneus rear murub6 (muru13), 12260 murub4 (muru2)

cpd gal4-la-na cunteus gal4-la-na = cuneus – bending over, show [122A9 gal4 cuneus + 121B7 LA bending over / rump, show + 1223E NA man, pestle, pounder] True Etym.: gala (festive dress, make merry) cf. also cpd gala-tur young male performer�GALA-TUR young male performer [12351 us2 phallus + 121AA KU rump + 12309 TUR young]

cpd gal4-la-na-she3 cunteus G-string gal4-la-na-še3 = loincloth [op. cit. + 12365 še3]

cpd gal4-la-ga2 cuneus as in Dumuzi ploughs Inanas gal4-la-120B7 txt breve ga2 = cuneus (deeper sense) [122A9 gal4 cuneus + 121B7 LA bending over / backside + 120B7 120B7 txt breve ga2 house]

..

proto MUG p2s

Proto Cuneiform – see Ref.

..

122AA 122AA SAL SAL LAGAB x ASH2

122AB 122AB SANGA2 SANGA2 / saga2 = [12x] priest

122AC 122AC SAR write DUBSAR SAR [377x] = to write | | sar [4917x] = garden; a unit of area; a unit of volume | SAKAR, MU2, kiri6= (fruit) plantation, orchard | determinative &sar; after garden / vegetables | šar[26x #2 behind 122B9 šar2]= 3600; totality, world; (to be) numerous

[PLM] 122AC evol Jaritz #281 archaic variant of SAR – knot in a cord, fasten together – write – line up characters in a fixed order

cpd cpd dub-sar scribe dubsar [11320x] = scribe [1207E DUB tablet + 122AC SAR write]

cpd ab-sar-re to writeab-sar-re = to write [1200A AB cosmic + ~ + 12291 RE aux; that ]

cpd cpd sar-ra-ka-ni garden plot sar-ra-ka-ni = garden plot [122AC SAR garden + 1228F RA thresh + 12157 KA mouth + 1224C NI digest]

122AD 122AD SHA SHA / ša = [74x]heart (variant cf. 122AE); [3x]official

uQQuQQ SHA2 NIG syllabary sh- šá=NÍG[syllabary; numeric??]

122AE 122AE SHA TIBULA heart SHA3 / ŠA3, šag4, tibula = [10808x] heart, center, interior

cpd cpd a-sag4 field surface math a-sag4 [9387x]= field, surface math.

ŠA3 Variants:

122AF 122AF SHA3 ~ x A; 122B0 122B0 SHA3 ~ x BAD; 122B1 122B1 SHA3 ~ x GISH; 122B2 122B2 SHA3 ~ x NE; 122B3 122B3 SHA3 ~ x SHU2; 122B4 122B4 SHA3 ~ x TUR; 122B5 122B5 SHA3 ~ x U; 122B6 122B6 SHA3 ~ x U + A

..

122B7 122B7 SHA6SHA6, SAG9 [826x]= good, sweet, beautiful

122B8 122B8 SHAB6 SHAB6 (šab6) qqq [cf. 1219A KAM2 ; numeric??]

122B9 122B9 SHAR2 big black dot SHAR2 / šar2 [245x] = 3600; totality, world; (to be) numerous [True Etym.: 360° circle, inventors sexagesimal system; math table; etc. / {šar2 is formed by making a circular indentation with the end of the stylus]

122B9 shar2 3600 invention sexigesimal system oldest math table

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

122BA 122BA SHE NIGA NIGU barley SHE / ŠE | niga, nigu = [28315x!] barley, grain; unit of length / area / volume / weight; shekel | True Etymology: origin of Hebrew term for money "she-kel" re price of bushel of grain | niga [12565x] = to be fattened

122BA evol barley

Money, like certain other essential elements in civilization, is an institution that goes way further back than we are taught to believe … the oldest coin currency that we know is a Sumerian bronze piece dating from before 7000CT / 3000plagio.

Sumerian Shekel History of Money Bernard Lietar

'On one side of the coin is a representation of a sheaf of wheat, and on the other, Ishtar, the goddess of fertility.
The Sumerians called it the "Shekel" where "She" meant wheat, "Kel" [12086] was a measurement similar to a bushel, hence this coin was a symbol of a value of one bushel of wheat. (The word “shekel” survives in modern Hebrew as Israel's monetary unit.) The original shekel had as its purpose payment for sacred prostitution at the temple of Ishtar, which was the temple of life and death. The temple, as well as being a ritual center, was the storage place for the reserves of wheat that supported the priesthood, and also the community in lean times. So farmers fulfilled their religious and social obligations by bringing their contributions of wheat to the temple, and receiving in exchange a shekel coin, entitling them to a visit with the temple prostitutes at the festival time. All this also must be understood in its cultural context: The sacred prostitutes were representatives of the goddess, and relations with them was relations with the goddess of fertility herself, nothing to take lightly…' The Future of Money, Bernard Lietaer '1997
..
'…coinage was arranged according to the sexagesimal numbering system developed earlier by the Sumerians:
ie. 1, 60 [1x60], and 3600 [122B9 (60x60]
...lowest denomination was a "shekel", then a "mina" [1223E] and finally a "talent" [12118]
1 mina = 60 shekels. 1 talent = 60 mina [3600 shekels].
The mina weighted about 500 gms., and the talent about 30 kgs.
These coins were used to pay for property, buy goods and services, pay fines, pay taxes, etc.
Some examples of the use of the shekel from one of the later law codes inscribed on the cuneiform tablets:
"The price of one gur [12125] of barley is one shekel of silver".
"The price of 2 gurs of salt is one shekel of silver".
"The price of one hal [1212C] seed is one shekel of silver".
"The wage of a labourer is one shekel of silver and his food one ban of barley and he has to serve for this wage for one month"…
Some information on the relative value of the coins and the wealth that each represented... The scribe is lauding the benevolent king for his protection of the poor. "He saw to it that … the man of one shekel did not fall a prey to the man of one mina (sixty shekels) …" '
[more]
..

122BB122BB SHE HU SHE-HU, uz [57x] = wild duck

122BC 122BC SHE SHE/SHE GAD/GAD GAR/GAR;

122BD 122BD SHE SHE/SHE TAB /TAB GAR/GAR | garadin3 [0x] = bundle (of reeds), stack of sheaves; grain stack

122BE 122BE SHEG9 SHEG9 [11x] = snow; sleet; cold weather; frost, ice; burning, incineration; chills, shivers

122BF 122BF SHEN PISAN bucket SHEN, ALAL ??, PÌSAN, DUR10, ŠEN [107x]= bucket, cauldron

122C0 122C0 SHESH brotherSHESH / ŠEŠ [1579x] = brother; junior worker, assistant |urin(uri3, uru3) [56x] = standard | cpd ~ + 12015 cpd UR-IM2-ki Ur v1 URIM = (standard of) Ur | cf. 12336 12336 UR13

122C1 122C1 SHESH2 SHESH2 / šeš2,še8, = [54x] to weep | annoint ??

122C2 122C2 SHESHLAM SHESHLAM / šešlamqqq | cf. šešlam2 cpd sheshlam2[UNMNG]

122C3 122C3 SHID SHIT SANGA SAGGA SANGU SAGA8 official of temple SHID / ŠID, ŠIT / SHIT! ŠITI, LAG | 122C3 txt breve sagga sagga [1862x] (sanga, sangu, 122C3 txt breve saga8 saga8) = an official, the chief administrator of a temple household | 122C3 txt breve nesag2 (nesag2) [661x] = first-fruit offering; a storage place | šid [292x] = count(ing); number; half (shares); to count [calculate] | silag [0x] = body part

122C4 122C4 SHID ~ x A; 122C5 122C5 SHID ~ x IM

122C6 122C6 SHIM scent SHIM / šim [819x] = beer, beer malt – cf. 12049 12049 BI PI KASH open beer kaš [13889x] | [35x] type of basin | ŠEM, LUNGA = scent (aromatic substance)

ŠIM Variants

122C7 122C7 SHIM ~ x A; 122C8 122C8 SHIM ~ x BAL; 122C9 122C9 SHIM ~ x BULUG | šembulug3 [OB resin; tree]; 122CA 122CA SHIM ~ x DIN

122CB 122CB SHIM GAR BAPPIR beer spice ~ x GAR, bappir [64x #3 behind 1204B1204B BIbappir3 ] = an ingredient in beer-making, spice

122CC 122CC SHIM ~ x IGI;

122CD122CD SHIM ~ x IGI gunu | šembi [38x] = eye makeup, kohl; antimony paste; to anoint, smear on

122CE 122CE SHIM ~ x KUSHU2; 122CF 122CF SHIM ~ x LUL; 122D0 122D0 SHIM ~ x MUG; 122D1 122D1 SHIM ~ x SAL

..

122D2 122D2 SHINIG SHINIG / šinig = [28x] tamarisk(small shrub with needle-shaped leaves) | cf 12240 12240 NAGA NAG2 NISABA tornado

122D3 122D3 SHIR testicles SHIR / ŠIR, NU11, SIR4 = [13x] testicle; bulb

122D4 122D4 SHIR SHIR tenu x NU11 tenu

122D5 122D5 SHIR SHIR/SHIR BUR/BUR x NU11/NU11 BUR/BUR

122D6 122D6 SHITA SHITA / šita [17x] = priest; ~ figurine

122D7 122D7 SHU hand SHU / ŠU [2785x] = hand | ŠU+GIR = ring

cpd cpd shu-nigin2 total sum 18294x šu-nigin2 [18294x] = sum, total [ ~ + 121B8 LAGAB encircle]

cpd shu-kal-le-tud-da PN šu-kal-le-tud-da = Šukaletuda (PN) [122D7 ŠU hand + 12197 KAL mighty + 121F7 LE branch + 12305 TU small, priest + 12055 DA line]

122D8 122D8 SHU SHU/INVERTED SHU

122D9 122D9 SHU2 SHU2 (šu2) | šuš2 [281x] = to cover, to spread over; to envelop, overwhelm; covering; to sink down; to cloud over; surface; to raise (clothes)

122DA 122DA SHUBUR SHA pig SHUBUR / ŠUBUR, ŠAH breve cap, ŠAH breve cap2 [1117x] = pig | determinative &cah2; pigs

cf uQQ uQQ shul young man 305x šul[shul; 305x]= (to be) manly; youth; young man

122DB 122DB SI horn SI = [401x] to fill, load up; to draw water; to brew beer |[262x]horn | finger; fret

cpd cpd bi2-ib-si-si filled bi2-ib-si-si = fill [12248 bi2 carry + 12141 IB oval + 122DB SI fill]

cpd si-si-de3 fill firesi-si-de3 = fill and carry

cpd im-mi-ib2-si-si fill draw water im-mi-ib2-si-si = draw / fill (water from well) [1214E IM storm, anger + 1222A MI black + 12308 ib2 cross-beam (of well) + 122DB SI x2 fill]

cpd u5 high water u5 = high water [12137mušen bird + ~ ]

[PLM]proto cpd u5 bird draw water 122DBa combination, the top element… "sitting bird", "egg-like" = "bird" (but also possibly "brood")

122DC 122DC SI gunu SI gunu

122DD 122DD SIG thin narrow SIG [343x] = (to be) weak; (to be) low; (to be) thin; (to be) narrow

122DE 122DE SIG4 clay brick MURGU shoulder SIG4, šeg12 [572x] = clay / mud brick | MURGU [363x] = shoulder, back

[PLM]sig(a)4, "(dried) brick", depicts "three bricks/tiles forming a zig-zag pattern":122DE evol

122DF 122DF SIG4 SIG4/SIG4 SHU2

122E0 122E0 SIK2 SIKI wool SIK2, SIG2, SIKI [4753x] = wool, fleece; hair; (animal"s) pelt [*cf. True Etym. siki => silk]

122E1 122E1 SIILA3 SILA3 [43696x!!!] = a unit of capacity (= 1 litre, Oxford Handbook Cuneiform p64); a vessel

122E2 122E2 SUKUSH hide fur internal organs SU, KUŠ [3818x] = skin, hide, leather, fur; person; [54x] submerge; [495x] flesh, body, entrails | determinative &kuc; before words for items made of leather

122E3 122E3 SU SU/SU

uQQ uQQ SU4 SI4 to be red brown 184xSU4, SI4 [184x] = to be red, brown

122E4 122E4 SUD pull SUD, ŠUD / shud [488x] = (to be) distant; (to be) remote, long-lasting; (to be) profound | SIR, BUgunû = pull; spread; sail; run

122E5 122E5 SUD2 SUD2 = grind, bite ??

122E6 122E6 SUHUR head hair SUHUR [3x] = to trim or comb the hair |head hair | cf. munsub2

122E7 122E7 SUM give -etym sum add totalSUM, ŠUM2, SI3 = give [True Etymology: 'sum' (total, add up); Greek 'sigma'] | sig10 (si) [836x] = to cast; to fashion

cpd cpd im-ma-ni-sig10 place im-ma-ni-sig10 = to cast (an eye) [1214E IM mud, storm + 12220 MA approach + 1224C NI finish + 122E7 cast]

122E8 122E8 SUMASH SUMASH / sumaš | sumašku6 [49x] = an oceanic fish

122E9122E9 SUR SUR [82x] = to squeeze, press; to flash; to drip; to rain; to milk – cpdcpd ngesh-sur dick-press urinate geš3+sur = phallus + squeeze / milk = urinate | [82x] = half | cf. 120FB 120FB GAR NINDA NIG2 thing bread; thing

122EA 122EA SUR9 SUR9 = [plectrum, musical??]

122EB 122EB TA TA (dá) [85x] = what? | as much as (math./ quantity), from [preposition]

122EC 122EC TA asterisk TA = asterisk [= star = TAra] cf. 1202D

122ED 122ED TA LAL3 honey TA x HI, LAL3 [241x]= syrup, honey

122EE 122EE TA TA x MI; 122EF 122EF TA gunu TA gunu

122F0 122F0 MIN TAB 2 two TAB, MIN [0x!] = 2 ["2" / two numeric] | TAB [740x] = to double; to repeat; companion, partner, friend | cf. more used 1222B1222B MIN 2 two[959x] | True Etym.: tab (key); tabulate

122F1 122F1 TAB TAB/TAB NI/NI DISH/DISH

122F2 122F2 TAB sq TAB sq

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

122F3 122F3 TAG TAG [266x] = to touch, take hold of; to bind – True Etym.: tag, touch (tuku); to attack | šum [63x] = slaughter | TUKU5 [151x] = beat, strike of cloth; to weave | TIBIR [26x] = hand | ZIL2 = good, beneficent

122F4 122F4 TAG ~ x BI;122F5 122F5 TAG ~ x GUD;122F6 122F6 TAG ~ x SHE;122F7 122F7 TAG ~ x SHU;

122F8 122F8 TAG ~ x TUG2;122F9 122F9 TAG ~ x UD

122FA 122FA TAK4 TAK4, (da13) [667x] = to set aside, leave behind; to save, keep back, hold back

122FB 122FB TAR cut TAR = [237x] to cut down; to untie, loosen; to scatter, disperse | sila [238x] = street | kud, ku5 [1111x] = to break off, deduct; to separate, cut off; to cut; to incise; to decide; to make clear | disease

122FC 122FC TE cheek TE = cheek; to pierce, penetrate, [31x] membrane | cpd cpd IM MA TE approach im-ma-te = approach, landing [1214E IM wind + 12220 flow + 122FC TE approach, land cf. 12312 UB as in kiss]

cpd cpd IM-TE-A-NI him her -self (im/) ni2-te-a-ni = penetrate; inspect [inspected

1214E IM storm + 122FC TE cheek; penetrate; membrane + 12000 A cry of woe + 1224C NI quiver]

122FD 122FD TE gunu TE gunu = cf. cheek, pierce

122FE 122FE TI life rib TI, TIL3 [770x] = life,to live; to sit (down); to dwell |UZUTI = rib

122FF 122FF TI TENU TI tenu

12300 12300 TIL BAD death cf 12041 TIL [627x] = (to be) complete(d); (to be) old, long-lasting; to end | ÚŠ, EŠE3~AŠ.U | sumun = sun, old | cf. 12041 BAD death BAD 12041

12301 12301 TIR forestTIR [404x] = forest, wood; mud

12302 12302 TIR ~ x TAK4 ; 12303 12303 TIR ~/~; 12304 12304 TIR ~/~ GAD/GAD GAR/GAR

1230512305 TU TUR DOVE TU = priest [1x!] | sheep [4x!] | [16x] small | TU+TURMUŠEN = little dove

12306 12306 TUG2 garment SHE3 towards TUG, TUG2 [5078x] = textile,garment (TU9, dul5; [379x] bar-dul5) | usually as determinative &tug2; garments |2 | še3, = towards | gi7, gir15, zi3, zid2 | azlag2 = fuller (cleans thickens woven cloth)| TUG2, TU9, NAM2 | cf.12247 12247 NAM2| True Etym.: Roman toga

cpd cpd TUG2-DARA4 loincloth belt sash girdle G string tug2dara4= (Inana"s) loinclth, sash, G-String, belt [~ + 12071 dara4 = red, brown, blood]

12307 12307 TUK anger angry TUK, tuku = powerful able-bodied (cpd a2-tuku); proud | TUG = anger

12308 12308 TUM TUM, (du4) | ib2[36x] = hips; middle | ib2[35x] = (to be) angry; to curse | tum [19x] cross-beam| cf. mi-iq-tum (miqtum, mi-gal2-tum) social class

1230912309 DUMU son TUR | DUMU [28245xxx!] = child, son; apprentice | TUR [1719x] (to be) small; to reduce, diminish; to subtract; (to be) young

cpd cpd dumu-munus daughter 660x dumu-munus [660x] = daughter [ ~ + 122A9 MUNUS cuneus]

cpd lu2-tur child son lu2-tur [35x] = son [121FD lu2 hot rod + ~ ]

1230A1230A TUR TUR/TUR ZA/ZA

1230B 1230B U vowel 10 U (vowel, basic cuneus); “10“; BUR3 = hole | UH breve cap7 = curse, bewitch | 121E5121E5 LAGAB PU GIGIR wagon TUL source NÍGINxU) = PÚ = well (encircled area+hole) | šu4 [24x] = totality, world | burudx(U)(bur3, buru3)[49x] = breach, hole; depression, low-lying area, depth; to perforate / penetrate; (to be) deep | šu4 = anus | šuš2 (šu4)[74x #2 behind 122D9 šu2] = to cover, to spread over; to envelop, overwhelm; covering; to sink down; to cloud over; surface; to raise | bur3 [54x #2 behind 1205312053 BUR BUR 67x]= a unit of area; a unit of volume | ge14 = stylus cuneus | [winkelhaken = angle hook]

[PLM]1230B evolmeans "hole", and reads both u, "(oral) cavity", and hu3 "anus ("anal sphincter" or "anal cavity")". This is supported by another reading of this same sign: *šu4 (for *šü4), "excrement-palm", the left hand being used mandatorily for the hygiene of unclean bodily functions. It is, to this day, a serious insult to offer a MidEasterner the left hand as a greeting because of the traditional use of the left hand.

1230C 1230C U GUDU-GUD, ul [161x] = (to be) distant (in time); distant time

cpd nigul g breve txt (nigul) cpd NIG2-UL everlasting thing eternity immortality 33x nig2 g breve thing possession-ul (nig2-ul) [33x] = an everlasting possession [The Xxxxx Family MUGSAR benefactors 12014CT nigul icon = "MUGSAR Benefactor whose family has been assigned a sign, cpd or section forever!"; asset; eternity, immortality; cf. etym. god | 120FB nig2 g breve thing possession thing, possession + 1230C ul distant time]

1230D 1230D U ESH 30 thirty SIN moonU+U+U | ESH / EŠ = 30 (numeric) | UŠU3 | SIN = moon

1230E 1230E U U/U PA/PA GAR/GAR

1230F1230F U U/U SUR/SUR |garadin9 = sheaf, bundle (of reeds)

12310 12310 U U/U U rev/U rev

12311 12311 U2U2 [4129x] = plant(s); food; bread, loaf; grass; herb; pasture; firewood |determinative &u2; plants

[12147] 12147 IGI DIB U3 LIBIR sleep dreamù / u3 [6340x] = and; but; also

12312 12312 UB UB = [78x] corner| ar2 = [56x] praise, fame; [11x] ruin

12313 12313 UD day time UTU sun UD / u4 [29106xxx!] = sun, day, time / "Once, ..."; summer, heat, fever | UTU | tam, zalag, zimbir (ud.kib.nun), e3 (ud.du) | babbar = white, shining | zabar = bronze | determinative &zabar; bronze | a3h = dried, withered

cpdcpd e3 UD-DU leave go out threade3 (UD-DU) [1850x]= to leave, to go out; to thread, hang on a string; to remove, take away; to bring out; to enter; to bring in; to raise (sunrise), rear (a child); to sow; to rave; to winnow; to measure (grain) roughly (with a stick); to rent [~ + 1207A DU]

cpd IM-TA-UD-DU-A-RA im-ta-e3-a-ra = sunrise

cpd UD-BA day halved noon qq ud-ba = day (open, halved, noon?, Later?) [~ + 12040 BA]

UD Variants:

12314 12314 UD KUSHU2 UD KUSH U2 | uh breve [syl.] weathervane ??; 12315 12315 UD UD x BAD ; 12316 12316 UD UD x MI

12317 12317 UD UD x U + U + U | ITI (UD×EŠ) itud, itid [2145x cf 36175x ??] = moon, month

12318 12318 UD UD x U + U + U gunu;

12319 12319 murub6 cuneus rear UD gunu (murub6) (muru13)[446x] = cuneus, rear – see 1226012260 NISAG middle murub4

1231A 1231A UD month UD sheshig (šešig), itudx, ITI | UD x EŠ ITI2 ~ ITI x BAD = month[0x!]

1231B 1231B UD sheshig x BAD UD sheshig x BAD

1231C 1231C UDUG UDUG = a demon (of desert, mountain, sea, tomb); ~ figurine ??

1231D 1231D UM reed rope UM = [34x] reed (stylus? writing / black hero comes next to wheel UMBIN!), stem of

cf. 1207E1207E DUB clay tablet DUBSAR DUB tablet; 1222912229 MES cylinder seal sealed tablet black Gilgameshmes(meš3), kišib black hero

It's not just the Sumerians calling themselves black, the first professors are BLACK!cpd um-mi-a expert master craftsman scholar is BLACK 142xum-mi-a = scholar, expert, craftsman [scholar 1231D UM reed stem (stylus/writing symbol, 1207E tablet var) + 1222AMI black + 12000 progeny]

1231E 1231E UM ~ x LAGAB; 1231F 1231F UM ~ x ME + DA; 12320 12320 UM ~ x SHA3; 12321 12321 UM ~ x U

..

Invention of the Wheel

12322 12322 UMBIN wheel aaa UMBIN = wheel | cf. 1232B 1232B UR2 penis 2 UR2 (lynchpin), 122FA 122FA TAK4 TAK4, = hold back (the King's fancy hub caps)

wheel invented 5000ya

12322 UMBIN wheel breakdown2

Major Lemma | *QF* | TOC | top

12323 12323 UNMUM SIMUG metalworker UMUM, SIMUG [396x] = metalworker, smith [cf. True Etym. simug => smith] | umun2 [16x] = knowledge; workshop

1232412324 UMUM~ x KASKAL | DE2 [702x] = to pour, to winnow

12325 12325 UMUM ~ x PA

12326 12326 UN UG3 people ug sag gig-ga UN | ug3(ug3, un) = [704x] people, KALAM= The Land (of Sumer)

cpdcpd Black Sumerians ùg sag gig.ga =Black Sumerians

12327 12327 UN gunu UN gunu

12328 12328  UR dog UR = dog; ecstatic [cf. city of UR] | cpd cpd NIG MUG MUNUS n UR dog NIG ~ MUG + UR = bitch

12329 12329 UR UR +-ing UR; 1232A 1232A UR sheshig UR sheshig

1232B 1232B UR2 penis 2UR2 = phallus, loin limb, root, base

UR2 Variants

1232C 1232C UR2 ~ x A + HA; 1232D 1232D UR2 ~ x A + NA ; 1232E 1232E UR2 ~ x AL; 1232F 1232F UR2 ~ x HA; 12330 12330 UR2 ~ x NUN; 12331 12331 UR2 ~ x U2; 12332 12332 UR2 ~ x U2 + ASH; 12333 12333 UR2 ~ x U2 + BI

12334 12334 UR4 UR4 [612x]= to pluck; to gather, collect; to harvest

12335 12335 URI URI, BUR/BUR = [17x] vessel; 12335 uri-ke = Agade / Akkad [ ~ + 121A4 KE4 open field]

12336 12336 UR13 URI3 qqq | cf. 122C0 122C0 SHESH brother ŠEŠ [in cpd Ur / UMIN] = brother, assistant | cf. 120E3 120E3 GA2 ur14 [UNMNG]

12337 12337 URU city URU, IRI [2070x] RÍ (ri2), U19 = Civilization = Black Sumerian city-dwellers

cpdcpd DA-RI2 eternal 100x dari [100x] = eternal [12055 da (line, writing board) + 12337 ri2 (civilization)]

URU Variants:

12338 12338 URU ~ x A: 12339 12339 URU ~ x ASHGAB

1233A 1233A URU URU x BAR, ukkin / unkin = [69x] assembly

1233B 1233B URU ~ x DUN; 1233C 1233C URU ~ x GA; 1233D 1233D URU ~ x GAL; 1233E 1233E URU ~ x GAN2 tenu; 1233F 1233F URU ~ x GAR; 12340 12340 URU ~ x GU; 12341 12341 URU ~ x HA; 12342 12342 URU ~ x IGI; 12343 12343 URU ~ x IM; 12344 12344 URU ~ x ISH; 12345 12345 URU ~ x KI; 12346 12346 URU ~ x LUM;

12347 12347 URU ~ x MIN | ulu3, lu7 | cpds cpd lu2-ulu3  to be humanlu2-ulu3= human [121FD lu2 man + ~] | cpd nam-lu2-ulu3 or lu7 humanity namlulu = [117x] humanity [12246 NAM destiny + op. cit.]

12348 12348 URU ~ x PA; 12349 12349 URU ~ x SHE; 1234A 1234A URU ~ x SIG4; 1234B 1234B URU ~ x TU; 1234C 1234C URU ~ x U + GUD; 1234D 1234D URU ~ x UD

1234E 1234E URU BANSHUR table URU x URUDA, banshur / banšur = [256x] table

..

1234F 1234F URUDA URUDA, urud [992x] = copper | dab6 = [30x] go around | determinative &urud; copper / bronze

12350 12350 URUDA TABIRA copper URUDA x U, TABIRA = copper

12351 12351 USH NITA male man USH, , nita, nitah breve = [2267x] man, male, phallus | 12351 txt ngesh3 gesh3 / geš3 (giš3) / gesh = phallus | [312x] unit of length | us2 (uš) [9695x] = to accompany / follow / adjacent; (to be) of a lesser quality; to drag; to stretch; a qualification of grain; to thresh (grain) by treading; to coagulate? | us2 [4087x] = side, edge; path | us2[109x]= to lean on, impose; to check | determinative &m; before male names

[PLM] 12351 evol The Sumerian sign (Jaritz #424), depicts phallus with scrotum. Its main reading is uš (for *ûš), which means "cohabit, impregnate, stud-animal", representing "surround-excrete". The Sumerian word can be found in PIE (Proto-Indo-European): *wes-, "dampen, wet, male animal", and *wegw-, "damp, sprinkle".

cpds

cpd ngesh-dug dick-speak copulategeš3-dug4[46x] = mating [~ + 12157dug4 perform]

cpd ngesh-du dick-build copulategeš3-du3 (/KAK) = mating [ ~ + 12195 du3 perform]

cpd ngesh-zig dick-rise have an erectiongeš3-zig (12363) = erection [ ~ + 12363zig rise]

cpd mu-ush gesh2 variant sixty 60 erection qq mu-USH (mu-uš) = 60 variant; erection??

cpd ngesh-sur dick-press urinate geš3-sur = urinate [ ~ + 122E9 sur squeeze / milk]

cpd im-ma-ni-in-dug4 fuk IM-MA-NI-IN-KA/dug4 = mating [1214E IM storm + 12220 MA flow + 1224C NI quiver + 12154 IN = abuse, rape + 12157 dug4 / KA = perform, mating]

12352 12352 USH ~ x A; 12353 12353 USH ~ x KU; 12354 12354 USH ~ x KUR; 12355 12355 USH ~ x TAK4

12356 12356 USHx USHX qqq | cf. 12230 12230 MUNSUB hair hair

12357 12357 USH2USH2 / uš2 = [3556x] to die; to be dead; to kill; death | [50x] = blood; gore | [2x] = dead / dry reed (stylus) | ug7 [259x] = plural and imperfect singular stem of uš (to die) | cf. 12041 12041 BAD death BAD remote

12358 12358 USHUM serpent USHUM = serpent | cf. USHUM.GAL = dragon (big serpent)

12359 12359 UTUKI UTUKI = prob. honorific suffix | 3 signs: 1230012300 TIL BAD death cf 12041 TIL = complete, end; sun + 1215512155 IR ask IR = ask, divinate + ?? ; could be a link to 12232 12232 MUSH snake MUŠ = snake| cf. Marduk is derived from the Sumerian Amar-utu(ki) (see 1202B 1202B AMAR ZUR calf young bull) “the heifer [young cow?] of the sun-spirit”

1235A 1235A UZ3 UZ3, uzud(ud5, uz3)[3299x]= (female) goat

1235B 1235B UZ3 x KASKAL UZ3 x KASKAL

1235C 1235C UZU fleshUZU [274x] = flesh cf. SIG+UZU hit + flesh = TUD to beat / whip | determinative &uzu; body parts

1235D 1235D LIMMU5 4 four ZA, LIMMU5 [11x] = 4 ["4" four numeric; cf. more used 121F9 121F9 LIMMU2 4 four number limmu2[1759x] | NIGIDA LIMMU, DIŠ/DIŠ+DIŠ/DIŠ | ZA = [113x] man; [43x] bead, gem; [113x] CVVE | cpd cpd ZA-E you 468xZA-E = you [~ + 1208A E interjection]

1235E1235E ZA ZA tenu | ad4 [5x] = crippled

1235F 1235F ZA sq ZA sq x KUR

12360 12360 ZAG ZA3 border ZAG, ZA3 [902x] = side; arm; shoulder; border, boundary, district; limit; right side, the right

cpd cpd zag-bi boundary open limitless zag-bi = boundary open – endless [12360 ZAG boundary + 12049 BI open]

12361 12361 ZAMx ZAMX

12362 12362 ZE2 ZE2 = you; live | zi2 [157x] = cut | cf. give | la (lalamu) [66x] = lust, backside

12363 12363 ZI ZID self life live ZI-GA attack ZI, ZID | zig3 (zi) [8574x] = to issue; to levy, raise, muster; to expend; to swell / rise (have an erection)cpd ngesh-zig dick-rise have an erection 12351 txt ngesh3 gesh3 /geš3+zig | zid (zi) = [1475x]right; to be right, true, loyal, faithful | [815x] life, to breathe, self | syll.: sé, sí, ze, zi, | ZI+GA = insurgency, attack

12364 12364 ZI ov ZIZI/ZI

12365 12365 ZI13 ZI3, zid2, the real ESH2 / eš2 (eše2) še3 [7223x] = flour | [62x] rope, string [G-string - loincloth], thong (leather strip) | PSD as 12365 variant italic ZID2 flour 7223x italic perhaps to distinguish from 120A0 (see note) 120A0 ESH2 GIR native KIENGIR Sumerian native

cpd cpd-ni-ne-esh i3-ne-eš2 [ETCSL] = now Akk. Inanna [1224C NI time passes + 12248 NE fire; this + 123652 string (loincloth)]

12366 12366 ZIB ZIB = [16x] a mark; token; colour, paint

12367 12367 ZIB KABA tenuZIB KABA tenu

12368 12368 ZIG lower body ZIG = lower body

12369 12369 ZIZ2 wheat work team ZIZ2 [2856x] = wheat, work team

1236A 1236A ZU know cf 1200A ABZU abyss ZU [964x] = to know; learn

cpdscpd ABZU abyss cosmic under water ABZU = abyss [1200A AB cosmic sea + 1236A ZU know]

cpd nu-mu-un-zu-a know nu-mu-un-zu-a = not know [(in all of Sumer) 12261 NU not + 1222C MU name + 12326 UN (KALAM / Sumer) + 1236A ZU know + 12000 A bemoan]

1236B 1236B ZU5 ZU5 = doctor | cf. a-zu [81x]; a-zu5 [11x; 12000 A water + ~]

1236C 1236C ZU5 xA ZU5 x A

1236D 1236D ZUBURZUBUR [UNMNG] | cf. 12367 12367 ZIB KABA tenu

1236E 1236E ZUM ZUM [37x] = revolve [on what!] | haš4 (hash4) = lower body, abdomen; thigh

[END]

A | Major Lemma | *QF* | Contents | Top

***

MUGSAR 4-WAY

MUGSAR 4WAY logo

1. unicode 2. sign 3. lemma 4. translation [28x12013CT] 444

Current WIP 4-Way Library:

Very Common Signs | top | Contents | *QF*

Sumerians – Kings of the Earthlings

Firstly, the issue over the more correct cuneiform. Clearly, it make much more sense that "gi" 12100 reed stylus (writing => knowledge => power; reed marsh of Tigris and Euphrates delta) should be the one we use. Rather than the much less used non-Sumerian, later Babylonian "gir15" 120A0 (local), as shown at PSD for the individual logogram, 4900x to 7x, and the compound for Sumerian language "eme.gi" 21x over "eme.gir15" only 1x, in the older period. And similarly for tablets refering to the King of Sumer, mainly use cpd KI-EN-GI Sumer 2 "ki.en.gi", rather than ki.en.gir15 e.g. the famous Ur-Nammu tablet (see below, also ETCSL, e.g.1: Poem Išme-Dagan (c.2.5.4.01), line c25401.A.364; e.g.2: “Then the Martu peoples, who know no agriculture, arose in all Sumer…”, c1822.369). So why do the elites misquote the cuneiform sign actually used?!

Also see Proto Language Monosyllables – Patrick Ryan clearly knows what he is talking about, “…Emegi, the language of males in Sumer, differs in some interesting ways from equivalent forms inEmesal, the language of females…”

eme-gir15 vs eme-gi

[12174 'eme' = tongue, language + 12100 GI reed / write]

One can imagine that the Sumerians were dominant and respected by other states because they could write, hence the emphasis on reed stylus. Thus they were looked on as, “Kings of the Earthlings because the stylus is mightier than the sword”.

4-Way top | Very Common Signs | Contents

..

ki en gi cuneiform

4-Way follows…

Inana lady (wonder) come to pass Ur-Nammu the mighty man

12239

cpd

12000

1224C

cpd

cpd

cpd-d-inana 25

cpd NIN lady mistress 1467x

12000 A vowel water

1224C NI ZAL oil fat

cpd Ur-Nammu

cpd NITAH KALAG mighty

dinana

nin

a

ni

Ur-Nammu

cpd txt nitah breve

Inana

determ. 1202D AN+ 12239 MUŠ3

lady,

mistress

122A9

MUG cuneus + 12306

TUG2 garment

bemoan / sigh of wonder ; progeny; (water)

comes to pass

(Ur-Engur)

12328 UR dog, city? + determ. 1202D AN+ 121C9 cosmic waters

mighty man

12351 NITAH breve cap male + 12197 KALAG mighty + 120B5 GA suckling, young

King of Ur, King of Sumer and Akkad

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd LUGAL URIM KI MA King of Ur

cpd LUGAL KI-EN-GI KI King of Sumer

cpd URI-KE Agade Akkad

lugal ur-im-ki

lugal ki-en-gi ki

uri-ke

King of Ur

12217 LUGAL King + cpd Ur-im + 121A0 KI city

King of Sumer

12217 LUGAL King + Sumer: “121A0 KI cosmic world + 12097 EN lord + 12100 GI place of reeds stylus, writing, knowledge, power” + 121A0 KI city

and Akkad

12335 URI vessel, (Akkad) + 121A4 KE4 open field

..

temple build

cpd

cpd

cpd E-A-NI temple

cpd mu-na-du build

e-a-ni

mu-na-du

temple

1208D E2 temple +

aux a-ni: “12000 A wonder + 1224C NI timelessness”

build

1222C MU year, name + 1223E NA pestle +

12195 DU build

Sumerians called themselves“black-headed people”

cpd

cpd Black Sumerians

ùg3-sag-gíg2-ga

Sumerians

12326 ùg3 people (KALAM Sumer) + 12295 sag head + 1222A gíg2 black + 120B5 ga carry / aux.

Examples in tablets follow…

4-Way top | Very Common Signs | Contents

There in the tablets, “black people” are the “city-dwellers” and “rulers of Sumer”

Cont. from Inana | 4-Way top | TOC

231. His father replied to the boy;

232. his father replied to Šukaletuda:

233. “My son, you should join the city-dwellers your brothers the rulers of Sumer.

234. Go at once to the black-headed people, your brothers!

235. Then this woman [Inana] will not find you in the lands of Sumer.”

236. He joined the city-dwellers, his brothers all together.

237. He went at once to the black-headed people, his brothers,

238. and the woman did not find him in the lands.

[ETCSL: c133.231]

231. lu2-tur ad-da-ni mu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4

232. šu-kal-/le\-tud-da ad-[da-ni] mu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4

233. dumu-gu10 iri šeš-zu h breve e2-eb-us2-en

234. sag gig2 šeš-zu-ne giri3 gub-ba gen-na

235. munus-e šag4 kur-kur-ra-ka nu-um-ma-ni-in-pad3-de3-en

236. iri šeš-a-ni ni2-bi-a im-us2

237. sag gig2 šeš-a-ni giri3 gub-ba im-gen

238. munus-e šag4 kur-kur-ra-ka nu-um-ma-ni-in-pad3

4-Way follows…

Inana & Šukaletuda (c.1.3.3), line c133.231 [cont from Inana 138b]

231. lu2-tur ad-da-ni mu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4

[ETCSL: His father replied to the boy]

son father for a time tossed the problem around

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd lu2-tur child son

cpd ad-da-ni dad father

cpd mu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4 return

lu2-tur

ad-da-ni

mu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4

son

121FD lu2 male + 12309 TUR son

father

1201CAD father +12055 DA line (gen.) + 1224C NI in time

tossed the problem around

1222C MU year, dear, name, son + 1223E NA pestle + 1224C NI comes to pass + 12141 IB oval + 12104 x2 gi4-gi4 (conversation) reply

etcsl.orinst.ox…c133.231 (or c133.177)

..

232. šu-kal-/le\-tud-da ad-[da-ni] mu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4

[ETCSL: his father replied to Šukaletuda]

Šukaletuda father for a time tossed the problem around

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd shu-kal-le-tud-da PN

cpd ad-da-ni dad father

cpd mu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4 return

šu-kal-le-tud-da

ad-da-ni

mu-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4

Šukaletuda

122D7 ŠU hand + 12197 KAL mighty + 121F7 LE branch + 12305 TU small + 12055 DA line

father

op. cit.

advised

op. cit.

etcsl.ohinst.ox…c133.232

233. dumu-gu10 iri šeš-zu h breve e2-eb-us2-en [Inana-Šukaletuda c133.233]

[ETCSL: "My son, you should join the city-dwellers your brothers.]

son city-dwellers your brothers get protection from them the rulers of Sumer

12309

12337

122C0

cpd

cpd dumu-mu son

12337 URU city

cpd shesh-zu brother

cpd gan-eb-us2-en join

dumu-gu10

iri

šeš-zu

h breve e2-eb-us2-en

son

12309 TUR son + 1222C gu10 dear, son

city-dwellers

brothers

122C0 šeš brother + 1236A ZU know

get protection from the rulers of Sumer

120F6 h breve e2 be he + 12141 IB oval + 12351 us2 lean on + 12097 EN rulers of Sumer

etcsl.orinst.ox…c133.233

..

234. sag gig2 šeš-zu-ne giri3 gub-ba gen-na [Inana-Šukaletuda c133.234]

[ETCSL: Go at once to the black-headed people, your brothers!]

black people your brothers hop to it go

12295

1222A

122C0|12248

1210A

1207A

cpd

12295 SAG head SAG GIG-GA

1222A MI GE6 black sag gig-ga

cpd shesh-zu brother12248 NE

1210A GIR3 PIRIG foot

cpd DU-BA stand

cpd DU-NA go

sag

gig2

šeš-zu-ne

giri3

gub-ba

gen-na

head / people

black

brothers your

op. cit. | 12248 NE these / your

foot; path, via

stand

1207A DU stand + 12040 BA split

go

1207A gen go + 1223E pestle

etcsl.orinst.ox…c133.234

235. munus-e šag4 kur-kur-ra-ka nu-um-ma-ni-in-pad3-de3-en

[ETCSL: Then this woman [Inana] will not find you in all the lands.”]

That woman! interior of all the land talking did not find in Sumer the rapist

122A9

122AE

cpd

cpd

cpd munus e my cunteus

122AE SHA TIBULA heart

cpd kur-kur-ra-ka lands talking

cpd nu-um-ma-ni-in-pad3-de3-en could not find in Sumer

munus-e

šag4

kur-kur-ra-ka

nu-um-ma-ni-in-pad3-de3 EN

That woman!

munus + 1208AE interjection

interior

in all the land talking (about the rape) 121B3 KURlands + 1228F RA aux. + 12157 KA talk

not find in Sumer the rapist

(of Inana)

op. cit. pad3. +

12097 EN abbrev. for Sumer

etcsl.orinst.ox…c133.235

..

236. iri šeš-a-ni ni2-bi-a im-us2

[ETCSL: He joined the city-dwellers, his brothers all together.]

city dwellers his brothers in time all together joined

12337

cpd

cpd

12351

12337 URU city

cpd shesh-a-ni brother2

cpd ni2-bi-a itself

cpd im-us2 join adjacent

iri

šeš-a-ni

ni2-bi-a

im-us2

city-dwellers

brothers his

122C0 šeš brother + 12000 A bemoan + 1224C NI in time

themselves

(1224E ni2 + 12049 BI + 12000 A)

[see ETCSL]

joined

1214E IM copula+ 12351 us2 accompany, follow

etcsl.orinst.ox…c133.236

237. sag gig2 šeš-a-ni giri3 gub-ba im-gen

[ETCSL: He went at once to the black-headed people, his brothers,]

black people his brothers hopping to it went

12295

1222A

cpd

1210A

1207A

cpd

12295 SAG head SAG GIG-GA

1222A MI GE6 black sag gig-ga

cpd shesh-a-ni brother2

1210A GIR3 PIRIG foot

cpd DU-BA stand

cpd im-gen went

sag

gig2

šeš-a-ni

giri3

gub-ba

im-gen

head / people

black

brothers his

op. cit. 236

foot

op. cit. 234

stand

op. cit. 234

went

1214E IM copula + 1207A gen go

etcsl.orinst.ox…c133.237

..

238. munus-e šag4 kur-kur-ra-ka nu-um-ma-ni-in-pad3

[ETCSL: and the woman did not find him in the land.]

That woman! interior of all the land did not find the rapist

122A9

122AE

cpd

cpd

cpd munus e my cunteus

122AE SHA TIBULA heart

cpd kur-kur-ra-ka lands talking

cpd nu-um-ma-ni-in-pad3 could not find

munus-e

šag4

kur-kur-ra-ka

nu-um-ma-ni-in-pad3

That woman!

op. cit. 235

interior

in the land

op. cit.

not find the rapist (of Inana)

op. cit. pad3.

etcsl.orinst.ox…c133.238

[END extract] | 231 | 4-Way top | TOC

ETCSL Search: “black-headed people” sag-gig2 (-ga)

4-Way top | Very Common Signs | Contents

137-148. The francolin …… to the …… of its ……. The francolin …… to the birthplace of Dumuzid. Like a pigeon on its window ledge it took counsel with itself; the francolin in its shelter took counsel. Only his mother Durtur can gladden my master! Only his mother Durtur can gladden Dumuzid! My goddess, born in Kuara, the maiden who is the crown of all ……, the admiration and acclaim of the black-headed people, the playful one who also voices laments and the cries, who intercedes before the king — Geštin-ana, the lady, did …….

..

137. […]-ba-še3 buru5-?abrudmušen-e nam /il2\

138. ki-ulutim2 ddumu-zid-da-še3 buru5-h breveabrudmušen-e […]

139. tum12mušen-gin7 ab-lal3-ba ni2-bi-a ad-e-eš ba-ni-ib2-gi4

140. buru5-h breveabrudmušen-e a2-bur2-ba ad-e-eš ba-ni-ib-gi4

141. lugal-gu10 ama-ni ddur7-/tur\-ra-am3 i3-h breveul2-le

142. ddumu-zid-de3 ama-ni <ddur7-tur-ra-am3 i3-h breveul2-le>

143. in-nin-gu10 u3-tud-da kuaraki

144. ki-sikil amar sig7-ga men-bi

145. u6 di nig2-me-gar sag gig2-ga

146. e-ne dug4-dug4 i-lu akkil dug4-dug4

147. nam-šita dug4-dug4 lugal-la […]

148. dgeštin-an-na-ke4 nin […]

c.1.3.2/Tr/Gl sag gig2-ga šir3-re-eš bi2-ib-ra

She shall determine fates. She shall apportion the divine powers among the Anuna, the great gods. And as for you, I will place in your hands the lives of the black-headed people.” When you get there, let the woman I have chosen for her beauty …… her mother. Do not go to her empty-handed, but take her some jewellery in your left hand. Waste no time. Return with her answer quickly.”

31-38. In the Gagiššua of the great palace, where she renders verdicts with grandeur, he made the great mother Ninlil glad. Enlil and Ninlil relished it there. In its great dining hall, the trustworthy hero chosen by Nunamnir made them enjoy a magnificent meal: the E-kur was rejoicing. They looked with approval at the shepherd Ur-Namma, and the Great Mountain decreed a great destiny for Ur-Nammu for all time, making him the mightiest among his black-headed people.

..

31. ga2-giš-šu2-a /e2\-gal mah breve-di gal ku5-ru-da-ni

32. /ama\ gal dnin-lil2-ra ul mu-na-ni-in-de6

33. den-lil2 dnin-lil2-bi dug3 mi-ni-in-gal2-le-eš

34. unu2 gal-ba šul zid mu pad3-da dnu-nam-nir-ra-ka (zi-kir šu-mi)

35. ninda mah breve am3-mi-ni-dug3 e2-kur h breveul2-la-am3

36. igi zid mu-un-ši-in-bar-re-eš sipad dur-dnamma-ra

37. kur gal-e sipad dur-dnamma-ra nam gal ud su3-ra2-še3 mu-ni-in-tar

38. sag gig2-ga-na a2 mi-ni-in-mah breve

4-Way top | Very Common Signs | Contents

ETCSL translation : t.2.5.3.4

http://etcsl.orinst.ox...c.2.5.3.4

A šir-namerima (?) for Iddin-Dagan (Iddin-Dagan D)

1-2. Great lady, majestic physician to the black-headed, holy Ninisina, daughter of An, may you be praised!

3-9. Lady whose tempest, like a raging storm, …… the interior of heaven and the trembling earth, whose upraised fierce face, like a fire, rips the bodies of the enemy; who, like a dragon, does not bring up venom in her place where ……, paws of a lion, sharpened knives, claws constantly dripping blood, …… which prick the body with fear! When you draw through the flesh the scalpel and the lancet, knives like lion's claws — the bodies of the black-headed people tremble because of you!

..

1. nin gal <a>-zu mah breve sag gig2-ga

2. kug dnin-isin2si-na dumu an-na me-teš2 h breve e2-i-i

3. nin tum9u18-lu-ni ud mir-a-gin7 an-šag4-a kih breve dub2-bu X

4. dgibil6-gin7 igi /h breveuš il2\-la-ni erim2-ma su dar-dar-re

5. ušumgal-gin7 ki KA X-a-na uš11-bi nu-ed3-de3

6. /šu pirig\-ga2 giri2 u3-sar ak umbin uš2 biz-biz-biz

7. su X H breve capA E de2-de3 ni2 su-a ru-ru-gu2

8. giri2-zal bulug-kig2-gur4 giri2 pirig-ga2-gin7 uzu e3-a-zu-uš

9. ug3 sag gig2 su ma-ra-sag3-sag3-ge

A praise poem of H breve capammu-rabi

http://etcsl.orinst.ox...c.2.8.2.1

1-17.

1 line fragmentary …… acting as its lord ……

7 lines fragmentary …… the black-headed ……. …… the Euphrates ……. …… the Tigris …….

10. […]-zu X um-ma-ri sag gig2-ga [(…)] /IM?\ en GIL

http://etcsl.orinst.ox...c.5.5.4

18-27. Here, {in {"Where Flesh Came Forth"} {(1 ms. has instead:) "Where Flesh Grew"} (the name of a cosmic location) , he set this very hoe (al) to work;} {(1 other ms. has instead:) in "Where Flesh Grew" the unassailable (?),} he had it place the first model of mankind in the brick mould. His Land started to break through the soil towards Enlil. He looked with favour at his black-headed people. Now the Anuna gods stepped forward to him, and did (gal) obeisance to him. They calmed Enlil with a prayer, for they wanted to demand (al-dug) the black-headed people from him. Ninmena, the lady who had given birth to the ruler, who had given birth to the king, now set (algaga) human reproduction going.

..

18. {{uzu-e3-a} {(1 ms. has instead:) uzu-mu2-a} gišal am3-mi-ni-in-du3}

{

(1 other ms. has instead the line:)

18A. uzu-mu2-a sag nu-ga2-ga2-de3

}

19. sag nam-lu2-ulu3 u3-šub-ba mi-ni-in-gar

20. den-lil2-še3 kalam-ma-ni ki mu-un-ši-in-dar-re

21. sag gig2-ga-ni-še3 igi zid mu-ši-in-bar

22. da-nun-na mu-un-na-sug2-sug2-ge-eš

23. šu-bi giri17-ba mu-un-ne-gal2

24. den-lil2 a-ra-zu-a mu-ni-in-h breveug-e-ne

25. ug3 sag gig2-ga al mu-un-da-be2-ne

26. nin en u3-tud-de3 lugal u3-tud-de3

27. dnin-men-na-ke4 tud-tud al-ga2-ga2

4-Way top | Very Common Signs | Contents

http://etcsl.orinst.ox...c.5.3.6

1-10.

2 lines fragmentary of Enlil ……. Small ten-shekel pieces of silver ……

6 lines fragmentary … unknown no. of lines missing

1-11.

5 lines fragmentary …… in aromatic oil of cedar ……. …… humans, the black-headed people. Let him anoint each with my …… aromatic oil of cedar. …… it is an abomination to my king.

..

7. […] /lu2\-ulu3 ug3 sag gig2-ge

8. […] i3 šim gišerin-na-ga2-ta-am3 h brevea-mu-ta-/šeš4\-e

9. […]H breve capI-bi-ra lugal-ga2 nig2-gig-bi-[im]

Sumer

The Victory of Utu-Hengal, ETCSL transliteration : c.2.1.6.

4. ki-en-gi-ra2 nij2-a-erim2 /bi2-in\-si-a

21. sig-ce3 ki-en-gi-ra2 {gana2} {(1 ms. has instead:) jic} bi2-kece2

http://etcsl.orinst.ox...c.5.3.3

236-247. “When the šem and ala drums, …… and other instruments play together for him, he passes the time with your heart-gladdening tigi and zamzam instruments. But it is I who have made the wine plentiful and made much to eat and drink. I perfect the garments with fine oil. I bring up the ……, the šutur and aktum garments. As for safeguarding, the best in Sumer, in the oppressive heat (?) of Summer, where they had been put away in the bedrooms amongst the black-headed people, moths destroy the blankets and make the aktum cloth perish because of you. …… exhausts itself for you ……. The wooden chest ……. I am Ninkasi's help, for her I sweeten the beer, with as much cold water, the tribute of the hills, as you brought.”

..

236. šem3 kuša2-la2 si-ŠIR3 giš-gu3-di ni2-ba u3-mu-na-du12

237. tigi za-am-za-am nig2 šag4 h breveul2-la-zu ud mi-ni-ib-zal-zal-e

238. ge26-e geštin lu-lu-me-en gu7 nag gal-gal-me-en

239. tug2 i3 dug3-ge ba-ab-du7-me-en

240. /nig2\-tug2-ba tug2šutur tug2aktum-ma a2 ba-ni-e3-a-me-en

241. /kum2\-ma dugud e2-me-eš sag ki-en-gi*-ra zi-bi tum2-tum2-de3

242. ug3 sag gig2-ga ur2-bi-a ki-nu2 gar-gar-ra-bi

243. tug2nig2-barag2 nim mu-ra-be4-be4 tug2aktum mu-ra-sah breve6

244. gišnig2-keše2-da a2 mu-ra-ab-kuš2-u3 e2-gal ma-ra-ŠEŠ-ŠEŠ

245. gišgu2-ne-sag-ga2-ke4 mu-un-kig2-kig2 en3 tar mu-ni-gal2

246. dnin-ka-si-ke4 a2-tah breve-a-ni-me-en kaš mu-un-na-ab-dug3-ge-en

247. a sed4 gu2-un h breveur-sag-ga2 a-na mu-e-tum2-tum2-mu

* So here in one of the few extant examples, "Sumer" = “sag ki-en-gi” = head(/people) +

cosmic world + lord + reed stylus "gi" [not little used 'gir15' native]

4-Way top | Very Common Signs | Contents

First Professors are Black!

The advice of a supervisor to a younger scribe (E-dub-ba-a C)

(The supervisor speaks...)" src="signsmugsar17/icon_smile.gif">

1. dumu e2-dub-ba-a ud ul-la ga2-nu ki-gu10-še3

[ETCSL: {Apprentice!} One-time member of the school, come here to me,]

Apprentice scribe school once supervised won"t you come down to the designated place

12309

cpd

12313

1230C+121B7

120B7+12261

cpd

12309 DUMU son

cpd e2-dub-ba-a scribe school

12313 UD day time UTU sun

cpd ul-la distant time

cpd ga2-nu wont you come

cpd ki-mu-she3 place

dumu

e2-dub-ba-a

UD

ul-la

ga2-nu

ki-gu10-še3

appren

-tice

scribe school

1208D e2 school, house + 1207E DUB tablet + 12040 BA allot, share + 12000 progeny

day,

once…

distant time

+ show, supervise

place,

come down + NU not (won"t you come)

designated

place 121A0 KI place + 1222C MU name son +

12365 še3

string

Note: Original translation inexplicably doesn"t bother to translate the

very first word, “dumu” = apprentice – probably the most interesting and important part of the whole introduction…

http://etcsl.orinst.ox...c513.1

4-Way top | Very Common Signs | Contents

2. nig2 um-mi-a-gu10 mu-un-pad3-da za-e ga-ra-pad3-pad3

http://etcsl.orinst.ox.a...c513.2

[ETCSL: and let me explain to you what my teacher revealed]

something, dear professor, who of course must be black, revealed to the people of Sumer, you, like threshing grain will be revealed

120FB

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd

120FB GAR NINDA NIG2 thing

cpd um-mi-a-mu dear Professors are black of course

cpd mu-un-pad3-da reveal to the people

cpd ZA-E you 468x

cpd ga-ra-pad3-pad3 thresh out

nig2

um-mi-a-gu10

mu-un-pad3-da

za-e

ga-ra-pad3-pad3

some-thing

professor who of course must be black

1231D UM reed stem (stylus / writing symbol) (1207E tablet var) + 1222AMI black* + 12000 progeny + 1222C gu10 dear

revealed to

the people of Sumer 1222C MU name + 12326 UN (KALAM = Sumer) + cpd pad3 reveal + 12055 DA writing board

you

1235D + 1208A

like threshing grain will be revealed

120B5 GA bring

+ 1228F RA threshing

+ cpd pad3 reveal x2

* There are some who say that when the Sumerians call themselves black it should not be taken literally, and black means local or something. Also in signs for other professions the scribes don"t add this extra point , but here they emphasize the first professors that started the education revolution 5000 years ago are BLACK!

cpd um-mi-a first professors are BLACK psd 14 over 5000ya

3. za-e-gin7-nam nam-lu2-tur i3-ak šeš-gal i3-tuku-am3

[ETCSL: "Like you, I was once a youth and had a mentor]

za-e-gin7-nam

nam-lu2-tur

i3-ak

šeš-gal

i3-tuku-am3

you (sg.)

ZA-E-DIM2-NAM

status as child

NAM-LU2-TUR

to do

NI-AK

elder brother

ŠEŠ-GAL

to have

NI-TUK-A.AN

http://etcsl.orinst.ox...c513.3

*END current WIP*

4-Way top | Very Common Signs | top | Contents | *QF*

3-8.

“Like you, I was once a youth and had a mentor.

The teacher assigned a task to me — it was man's work.

Like a springing reed, I leapt up and put myself to work.

I did not depart from my teacher's instructions,

and I did not start doing things on my own initiative.

My mentor was delighted with my work on the assignment.

He rejoiced that I was humble before him and he spoke in my favour.”

3.za-e-gin7-nam nam-lu2-tur i3-ak šeš-gal i3-tuku-am3

4. um-mi-a lu2-ta kig2-ga2-am3 a2 ag2-ga2 giš bi2-in-gar

5. gi al-gu4-ud-da-gin7 i3-gu4-ud-de3-en kig2-ga2 bi2-in-sig10-ge-en

6. inim um-mi-a-gu10 nu-un-taka4 nig2 ni2-ga2 li-bi2-ak

7. šeš-gal-gu10 a2 giš gar-ra-ga2 šag4-ga-ni i-ni-in-dug3

8. i3-sun5-ne na-mu-da-ši-h breveul2 silim-ga2 i-ni-in-dug4

9-15.

9. “I just did whatever he outlined for me — everything was always in its place. 10. Only a fool would have deviated from his instructions.

11. He guided my hand on the clay and kept me on the right path.

12. He made me eloquent with words and gave me advice.

13. He focused my eyes on the rules which guide a man with a task:

14. zeal is proper for a task, time-wasting is taboo; 15. anyone who wastes time on his task is neglecting his task.”

9. giš ma-an-h breveur-ra na-an-dim2 ki-bi-še3 al-gar-gar

10. na de5-ga-ni-ta lu2 h breveu-ru-um šu bar dib-ba-e

11. im-ma šu-gu10 si ba-ni-in-sa2 us2 zid mu-un-dab5

12. ka-gu10 inim-ma gal2 ba-ni-in-taka4 ad gi4-gi4 ma-an-pad3

13. giš-h breveur lu2 a2 ag2-ga2 si sa2-e igi ma-ni-in-si-si

14. gu2 zi-zi-i h brevea-la a2 ag2-ga2-kam ud zal-le nig2-gig-ga

15. lu2 ki a2 ag2-ga2-ni-še3 ud zal-la a2 ag2-ga2-ni ab-taka4

16-20.

“He did not vaunt his knowledge: his words were modest.

If he had vaunted his knowledge, people would have frowned.

Do not waste time, do not rest at night — get on with that work!

Do not reject the pleasurable company of a mentor or his assistant:

once you have come into contact with such great brains,

you will make your own words more worthy.”

16. nig2-zu-a-ni pa nu-um-e3 ka-ga14-ni ba-an-la2

17. tukum-bi nig2-zu-a-ni pa ba-an-e3 igi mu-un-suh breve-suh breve-u3-ne

18. ud na-ab-zal-e-en gi6 na-ab-sed4-e-en a2-bi-še3 gen-na

19. šeš-gal šeš-ban3-da h breve i hi-li-a-bi na-an-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4

20. sag-ki gal-gal-la um-ma-te inim-zu ba-dugud-de3-en

21-26.

“And another thing: you will never return to your blinkered vision; that would be greatly to demean due deference, the decency of mankind.

Worthy plants [offerings?] calm the heart, and sins are absolved.

An empty-handed man's gifts are respected as such.

Even a poor man clutches a kid to his chest as he kneels.

You should defer to the powers that be and …… — that will calm you.”

21. 2-kam-ma-še3 igi keše2-da-zu-še3 nu-ra-ni-ib-gi4-gi4

22. ki za-za teš2 lu2-u18-lu-ka mah breve-bi gu2 h breve e2-ri-du3

23. u2 teš2-a-ka šag4 ab-sed4-de3 nam-tag-ga al-du8-e

24. lu2 šu sug4-ga-ka kadra-ni ur5-še3 nir mu-un-gal2

25. lu2 nig2 nu-tuku maš2 gur-ra-na gaba-na i-im-tab

26. lu2-garza2-ra ki h breve e2-en-ne-za h breve e2 [he2]-keše2 ba-sed4-de3

27-28.

“There, I have recited to you what my teacher revealed, and you will not neglect it.

You should pay attention — taking it to heart will be to your benefit!”

27. nig2 um-mi-a-gu10 mu-un-pad3-de3 e-ra-šid nu-mu-ra-ab-taka4

28. gizzal h breve e2-bi2-ak šag4-še3 gid2-i-de3 sag9-ge-zu mu-da-an-gal2

29-35.

The learned scribe humbly answered his supervisor:

“I shall give you a response to what you have just recited like a magic spell,

and a rebuttal to your charming ditty delivered in a bellow.

Do not make me out to be an ignoramus — I will answer you once and for all!

You opened my eyes like a puppy's and you made me into a human being.

But why do you go on outlining rules for me as if I were a shirker?

Anyone hearing your words would feel insulted!”

29. dub-sar umun2 ak sun5-na-bi ugula-a-ni mu-un-na-ni-ib-gi4-gi4

30. ud mu7-mu7-gin7 ab-šid-en-na-a ba-an-gi4-bi a-ra-ab-h brevea-za-an

31. mu gud-gin7 i-lu dug3-ga-zu-še3 giš i3-la2-a-bi

32. lu2 nu-zu nam-mu-ni-ib-ku4-ku4 1(DIŠ)-am3 ga-ra-ni-ib-gi4

(1 ms. inserts lines 60A and 60B here instead of after line 60)

33. ur-gir15 tur-gin7 igi mu-e-bad-bad nam-lu2-ulu3 mu-e-ak

34. a-na-aš-am3 lu2 ga2-la dag-ga-gin7 giš ma-ab-h breveur-h breveur-re-en

35. lu2 inim-zu giš ba-ni-in-tuku-a šu am3-ma-kar2-kar2

36-41.

“Whatever you revealed of the scribal art has been repaid to you.

You put me in charge of your household and I have never served you by shirking.

I have assigned duties to the slave girls, slaves and subordinates in your household.

I have kept them happy with rations, clothing and oil rations,

and I have assigned the order of their duties to them, so that you do not have to follow the slaves around in the house of their master.

I do this as soon as I wake up, and I chivvy them around like sheep.”

36. nam-dub-sar-ra a-na mu-e-pad3-da-zu šu-za ba-ni-in-šum2

37. e2-za h breve e2-bi2-gub-be2-en ud na-me nig2 ga2-la dag-ga-gu10-uš sa2 ba-ra-am3-mu-ri-ib-dug4

38. geme2 arad2 giri3-sig10-ga e2-za kig2-gi4-a h breve e2-bi2-ne-gi4

39. šukur2-bi tug2-bi u3 i3-ba-bi šag4-bi h brevea-ma-dug3-ga

40. a-ra2-bi-še3 kig2-gi4-a h breve e2-bi2-in-ne-gi4 e2 lugal-ka arad2 ba-ra-bi2-in-us2

41. gaba ud-ga2 h breve e2-bi2-ak udu-gin7 h breve e2-eb-us2-u3-nam

42-49.

“When you have ordered offerings to be prepared, I have performed them for you on the appropriate days.

43] I have made the sheep and banquets attractive, so that your god is overjoyed.

44] When the boat of your god arrives, people should greet it with respect.

45] When you have ordered me to the edge of the fields, I have made the men work there.

It is challenging work which permits no sleep either at night or in the heat of day, if the cultivators are to do their best at the field-borders.

I have restored quality to your fields, so people admire you.

Whatever your task for the oxen, I have exceeded it and have fully completed their loads for you.”

42. sizkur2 sa gi4-gi4-da h breve e2-mu-e-dug4 ud-bi sa2 h breve e2-ri-ib-dug4

43. udu-bi u2-gu7-bi h brevea-ma-sag9-sag9 digir-zu h breve e2-h breveul2

44. ud ma2 digir-za us2-sa-bi giri17 šu h brevea-ra-ab-tag-ge-ne

45. gaba a-šag4-ga-še3 a2 h breve e2-mu-e-da-a-a-ag2 erin2-e kig2 h breve e2-bi2-ak

46. kig2 a-da-min3-na gi6 an-bar7-ba u3 ba-ra-bi2-ku-am3

47. us2-a-DU dumu engar-ra-ke4-e-ne sag h breveu-mu-un-kal-le-ne

48. a-šag4-za šu nam-sag9-ga h breve e2-bi2-gi4 ug3-e u6 di h breve e2-ri-ib-dug4

49. gud-de3 a-na-am3 gub-zu dirig h breve e2-em-tum3 gu2-un-bi h brevea-ra-ab-silim-ma-am3

50-53.

“Since my childhood you have scrutinised me and kept an eye on my behaviour, inspecting it like fine silver — there is no limit to it!

Without speaking grandly — as is your shortcoming — I serve before you.

But those who undervalue themselves are ignored by you –

know that I want to make this clear to you.”

50. tur-ra-gu10-ta h breve e2-em-ma-dim4-e-en a-ra2-gu10 igi h breve e2-bi2-du8

51. kug sag9-ga-gin7 kurum7 h breve e2-bi2-ak ki-šer11 la-ba-an-tuku

52. gal-bi nu-di nig2-gig-zu-gin7 e-ra-da-tuš-u3-nam

53. ni2 tur-tur-re e-ra-da-sah breve6-sah breve6-na pa ga-ra-ab-e3 zu-a

54-59. (The supervisor answers:)

“Raise your head now, you who were formerly a youth. You can turn your hand against any man, so act as is befitting.” (The scribe speaks:) “Through you who offered prayers and so blessed me, who instilled instruction into my body as if I were consuming milk and butter, who showed his service to have been unceasing, I have experienced success and suffered no evil.”

54. ud-bi-ta lu2-tur h breve e2-me-en-na i3-ne-eš2 sag-zu il2

55. šu-zu lu2-ra mu-da-an-gi4-gi4-in a-ra2-bi-še3 DU-mu-un

56. šudu3 h breve e2-mu-e-ša4 nam mu-tar-ra

57. na de5-ga ga i3 gu7-a-gin7 su-ga2 i-ni-in-kur9-ra

58. gub-bu ga2-la nu-dag-ge pad3-da-zu

59. ki sag9-ga-bi sa2 h breve e2-ri-ib-dug4 nig2-h breveul-bi li-bi2-in-ak

60-61. (The supervisor answers:)

“The teachers, those learned men, should value you highly. {(2 mss. add 3 lines, 1 of the 2 mss. adds 2 more lines which correspond to lines 67 and 68 in this edition:) They should … in their houses and in prominent places. Your name will be hailed as honourable for its prominence. For your sweet songs even the cowherds will strive gloriously. For your sweet songs I too shall strive and shall … The teacher will bless you with a joyous heart.} You who as a youth sat at my words have pleased my heart.”

60. um-mi-a lu2 inim zu-u3-ne sag h breveu-mu-un-kal-le-ne

{2 mss. add 3 lines:)

60A. e2-bi-a ki sag-kal-la-ba DI-DI h breveu-mu-un-e-ne

60B. mu-zu dug3-ge-eš pad3-de3-da-bi sag-ki-bi ma-gal2

(1 of the 2 mss. has lines 67 and 68 after line 60B instead of after line 66)

60E. um-mi-a šag4 h breveul2-la-ni-ta šudu3 mu-na-an-ša4

61. lu2-tur inim-gu10-še3 ba-tuš-u3-nam šag4-gu10 bi2-dug3-ga-am3

62-72.

“Nisaba has placed in your hand the honour of being a teacher. {For her, the fate determined for you will be changed and so you will be generously blessed} {(1 ms. has instead:)

You were created by Nisaba! May you … upwards}.

May she bless you with a joyous heart and free you from all despondency. … at whatever is in the school, the place of learning.

66] The majesty of Nisaba … silence.

For your sweet songs even the cowherds will strive gloriously.

For your sweet songs I too shall strive and shall ….[omitted: 'do something for your MUNUS']

They should recognise that you are a practitioner (?) of wisdom.

The little fellows should enjoy like beer the sweetness of decorous words:

experts bring light to dark places, they bring it to culs-de-sac and streets.”

62. dnisaba dugud-da um-mi-a šu-za i-ni-in-gar-ra

63. {nam i-ri-tar-ra mu-na-ra-kur2-ru šu zid h brevea-ra-an-ga2-ga2}

{(1 ms. has instead the line:) šu dug4-ga dnisaba-me-en gu2 an-še3 […]}

64. šag4 h breveul2-la nam-še3 h breve e2-bi2-tar šag4 sag3 h breve e2-da-zig3

65. e2-dub-ba-a ki-umum-ma a-na gal2-la […]

66. nam-mah breve dnisaba nig2-me-gar pad3-pad3 di-da-/bi?

67. gud-us2 šir3 dug3-dug3-ga-zu-še3 giš la2-bi mah breve

68. šir3 dug3-ga-zu-še3 giš ga-mu-ni-in-la2 MUNUS-zu-gin7 ga-mu-ni-tag-tag

69. nig2 geštug2-ga nu-u18-lu-me-en h breveu-mu-un-pad3-pad3-de3-ne

70. di4-di4-la2 inim-inim-ma h breve e2-du7 kaš h breveu-mu-un-ku7-ku7-de3-ne

71. gašam ki ku10-ku10-ga ud ga2-ga2

72. sila sag gi4-a sila-a ba-an-ga2-ga2

73-74.

Praise Nisaba who has brought order to … and fixed districts in their boundaries, the lady whose divine powers are divine powers that have no rival!

73. us2 teš2-ba ri-a si sa2-e in ki-bi sur-sur

74. nin me-ni-da me nu-sa2-a dnisaba za3-mi2

[End Scribe School]

..

Quotes

eme-gi-še3 gu2-zu na-ab-šub-be2-en

“Don"t neglect the Sumerian language!”

(Letter from Inim-Inana to Lugal-ibila c.3.3.12.3.)

..

"Ipiq-Aya The Apprentice Scribe" [Google Books] p145 of The Scribe of the Flood Story and His Circle Ch7 p140-166 – Frans van Koppen – The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture, ed. Karen Radner, Eleanor Robson OUP '2011 (see also free download at academia.com; a backup of the MUGSAR is there too).

Ipiq-Aya dubsar apprentice scribe

Ipiq Aya house rental contract

..

Oldest written love stories

4-Way Inana | 4-Way top | Contents

Note: This section covered in more detail in Mugsar download version

Ecology of the Erotic in a Myth of Inanna Judy Grahn

Inanna went into the mountains and began flying around. From one border of the territory to the other, she flew round and round. She flew around the Tree whose roots intertwine with the horizon of heaven, by now so tired that she lay down beside its boundary roots. She had in her loincloth a weaving of the seven cosmic powers, across her thighs. Her thoughts were with her shepherd lover, Dumuzid. On the same plot of land a youth, Šukaletuda, was working, and saw her; he approached, untied the loincloth of divine powers…

..

It was only in "1949, in an article of the volume XVII of the Archiv Oreintalni called A Blood-Plague Motif in Sumerian Mythology, that Samuel Noah Kramer translated for the first time this myth…[more]

..

The Literature of Ancient Sumer edited Jeremy A. Black

Inana 7 powers loincloth3

“Inana needed to pass through the seven gates of the "abzu" (abyss), and was not allowed to pass through unless she removed an article of clothing / jewelry for each of gate. Her clothes were symbolic of her divine power, thus she was systematically weakened in this fashion. By the time she arrived in the inner palace, she was almost naked and almost dead…” [more]

cf. http://www.academia.edu/1247599/Inana_and_Sukaletuda_A_Sumerian_Astral_Myth

..

Inana and the Seven Cosmic Powers of her Loincloth

Note Intro above | 4-Way top | Very Common Signs | Contents

112a.

u4-/ba nin-gu10 an\ mu-un-nigin2-na-ta

Once, lady dear heaven (flew/) roamed around,

cpd

cpd

1222C

1202D

cpd

cpd UD-BA day halved noon qq

cpd NIN lady mistress 1467x

1222C MU year

1202D AN sky god

cpd mu-un-nigin2-na-ta roam around 121B8 1222C name 12326 people 1223E incense 122EB much

ud-ba

nin

- gu10

an\

/mu-un-nigin2-na-ta\

Once

12313 UD day + 12040 BA open halve

lady,

mistress

122A9

MUG cuneus + 12306

TUG2 garment

"dear one" determ. / honor.

heaven

roamed around

1222C MU name + 12326 UN (KALAM = Sumer) + 121B8 nigin2 encircle + 1223E NA incense + 122EB TA much

112b.

ki /mu-un- nigin2 \-[na]-/ta\

cosmic world roamed around

121A0

cpd

121A0 KI earth KIENGIR

cpd mu-un-nigin2-na-ta roam around 121B8 1222C name 12326 people 1223E incense 122EB much

ki

/mu-un-nigin2-na-ta\

cosmic world

to roam around

op. cit. 112a

113a. [Inana top]

dinana an mu-un-nigin2-na-ta

Inana heaven roamed around,

12239

1202D

cpd

cpd-d-inana 25

1202D AN sky god

cpd mu-un-nigin2-na-ta roam around 121B8 1222C name 12326 people 1223E incense 122EB much

dinana

an

/mu-un-nigin2-na-ta\

Inana

Determ. 1202D AN+ 12239 MUŠ3

heaven

roamed around

op. cit. 112a

..

113b.

ki /mu-un- nigin2 \-[na]-/ta\

cosmos roamed around

121A0

cpd

121A0 KI earth KIENGIR

cpd mu-un-nigin2-na-ta roam around 121B8 1222C name 12326 people 1223E incense 122EB much

ki

/mu-un-nigin2-na-ta\

cosmic

roamed around

op. cit. 112a

114. [Inana top]

/elamki\ su-bir4ki-a mu-un-nigin2-na-ta

Elam & Subir roamed around

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd ELAM eq NIM

cpd subir city

cpd mu-un-nigin2-na-ta roam around 121B8 1222C name 12326 people 1223E incense 122EB much

/elamki\

su-bir4ki-a

/mu-un-nigin2-na-ta\

Elam

"NIM"

1224F

"ki" Detern.

place

Subir

122E2 SU skin games + bir4 =

EDEN

12094 + "ki" Detern.

place + 12000 A water / river

roamed around

op. cit. 112a

..

115. [Inana top]

/dubur an\ gil-gi16-il-la mu-un-nigin2-na-ta

{[She flew around the Tree whose roots]

horizon heaven entwined roamed around,}

12135

1202D

cpd

cpd

12135 HI

1202D AN sky god

cpd gil-gi16-il-la entwined

cpd mu-un-nigin2-na-ta roam around 121B8 1222C name 12326 people 1223E incense 122EB much

dubur

an

gil-gi16-il-la

/mu-un-nigin2-na-ta\

horizon

heaven

entwined

12103 gilim /gi16

entwined + 1214B IL = high up + 121B7 LA

= bend over

roamed around

op. cit. 112a

..

116. [Inana top]

nu-gig kuš2-a-ni-ta im-ma-te dur2-bi-še3 ba-nu2

Sumerian high status woman (wore bead and was black) so tired landed

backside exposed [through skimpy loincloth] lay down [beside its boundary roots.]

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd NUGIG nu-u8-gig priestess high status women

cpd kush2-a-ni-ta tired

cpd IM MA TE approach

cpd dur2-bi-she3 rump

cpd BA-NA2 lie down

nu-gig

kuš2-a-ni-ta

im-ma-te

dur2-bi-še3

ba-na2

Sumerian high status woman was black 1222A wore beads 1226D + 12261 NU offspring + 121C7 U8 encircle

so tired

uQQ kuš2 tired

+ 12000 A cry of woe + 1224C NI come to an end + 122EB TA much

landed

1214E IM wind + 12220 MA flow + 122FC TE approach,

land [cf. 12312 UB as in kiss]

rump

12089 backside +

+ 12049 BI open + 12365 še3 string

[cf. loincloth]

lay down

12040 BA split, open, backside

+ 1223F

na2

lay down

etcsl.orinst.ox…c133.116

117. [Inana top]

šu-kal-le-tud-da zag sar-ra-/ka\-ni igi im-ma-ni-/sig10\

Šukaletuda beside lair watched.

[On the same plot of land a youth, Šukaletuda, was working, and saw her;]

cpd

12360

cpd

12146

cpd

cpd shu-kal-le-tud-da PN

12360 ZAG ZA3 border

cpd sar-ra-ka-ni garden plot

12146 IGI SHI LIM eye vision

cpd im-ma-ni-sig10 place

šu-kal-le-tud-da

zag

sar-ra-ka-ni

igi

im-ma-ni-sig10

Šukaletuda

122D7 ŠU hand + 12197 KAL mighty + 121F7 LE branch + 12305 TU small, priest + 12055 DA line

(be-) side

lair

122AC SAR garden + 1228F RA thresh + 12157 KA mouth + 1224C NI digest

eye, watch

to cast

(an eye) perve

1214E IM mud, storm + 12220 MA approach + 1224C NI finish + 122E7 cast

etcsl.orinst.ox…c133.117

118. [Inana top]

dinana-ke4 tug2dara4 me imin gal4-la na

Inana on reed mat [ lying on her side...] …

loincloth divine powers seven over her cuneus/backside…

[She had in her loincloth a weaving of the seven cosmic powers...]

12239+121A4

cpd

12228

12153

cpd

cpd-d-inana-ke4 Inana lying on reed mat

cpd TUG2-DARA4 loincloth belt sash girdle G string

12228 ME I am to be copula

12153 IMIN 9 nine

cpd gal4-la-na cunteus

dinana-ke4

tug2dara4

me

imin

gal4-la-na

Inana (DN)

Determ. 1202D AN+ 12239 MUŠ3

+ 121A4 reed mat [lying on]

loincloth

Determ. 12306 tug2 garment + 12071 dara4 = red, brown, blood

divine powers (enabling cosmic activity)

seven

(IA 5 + MIN 2)

cuneus

122A9 gal4 cuneus + 121B7 LA bending over + 1223E NA man, pestle, pounder

etcsl.orinst.ox…c133.118

119. {do. 118} tug2dara4? me 7 gal4-la-na […]

Inana loves Dumuzi

120. Inana dinanaki-ag2 sipad dumuzi

Inana's thoughts were with her shpeherd lover Dumuzi

12239

cpd

cpd

cpd

cpd-d-inana 25

cpd ki-ag2 love 666x

cpd sipad sipa shepherd 2463x 2

cpd dumuzi

dinana

ki-ag2

sipad

lu2-ddumuzi-da

Inana

determ. 1202D AN+ 12239 MUŠ3

loves

121A0 KI cosmic world + 12258 ag2 heat of passionate love

shepherd

1227A PA overseer + 121FB UDU sheep

dumuzi

121FD lu2 ruler + determ. 1202D AN 12309 + DUMU son + 12363 ZI faithful, true + 12055 DA line (gen.)

Inana loves Dumuzi Mugsar 4 Way tophalf

Gudea Cylinders

4-Way Ningirsu's Temple | 4-Way top | Contents

The Gudea cylinders are a pair of terracotta cylinders dating to circa 7875 CT [2125 plag] on which is written in cuneiform a Sumerian myth called the Building of Ningursu's temple.[1] The cylinders were found in "1877 during excavations at Telloh (ancient Girsu), Iraq and are now displayed in the Louvre in Paris, France. They are the largest cuneiform cylinders yet discovered and contain the longest known text written in the Sumerian language… [Wik]

The god of wisdom, Enki, organized the world after creation and gave each deity a role in the world order. Nisaba was named the scribe of the gods, and Enki then built her a school of learning so that she could better serve those in need.

Nidaba / Nindaba / Nisaba = goddess of writing (and teaching) she was often praised by Sumerian scribes. Many clay-tablets end with the phrasecpd d-nisaba za3-mi2 DINGIR-NAGA-ZAG-SAL Nisaba goddess of writingDINGIR.NAGA.ZAG.SAL,dnisaba za3-mi2, “Nisaba be praised” to honor the goddess. She is considered the teacher of both mortal scribes and other divine deities…

As the goddess of knowledge, she is related to many other facets of intellectual study and other gods may turn to her for advice or aid. Some of these traits are shared with her sister Ninsina. She is also associate with grain, reflecting her association with an earth goddess mother.

1224012240 NAGA NAG2 NISABA tornadoNAGA = potash; soap

AN.NAGA is read as NANIBGAL, and AN.ŠE.NAGA as NÁNIBGAL. NAGA is read as NÍDABA or NÍSABA, and ŠE.NAGA as NIDABA or NISABA…[Wik]

http://www.specialtyinterests.net/cuneiform_writing.html

http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.2.1.7

Gudean Cylinders 150

..

Gudean Cylinders price v1 150

The Building of Ningirsu's Temple

Intro above | 4-Way top | Contents

Gudea Cylinders A and B (c.2.1.7), line c217.110

Paragraph t217.p14 (line(s)110-114)

..

110. munus 1(DIŠ)-am3a-ba me-a nu a-ba me-a-ni

[ETCSL: Then there was a woman -- whoever she was.]

woman one was who “to be or not to be”*

122A9

cpd

cpd

12228

12261

cpd

12228

122A9 SAL MUG GALA MUNUS MUGSAR

cpd dish-am3

cpd a-ba who 326x

12228 ME I am to be copula

12261 NU not nonexistent

cpd a-ba who 326x

12228 ME I am to be copula

munus

DIŠ-am3

a-ba

me

nu

a-ba

me

woman

one was

12079 DIŠ one

+ cpd A-AN copula

who

12000 A progeny + 12040 BA share

to be

not

who

12000 A progeny + 12040 BA share

to be

*So that's where Shakespeare / Edward de Vere plagiarized it from!

http://cdli.ox...c217.110

111. sag-ga2e3ki garadin9mu-ak

[ETCSL: She …… sheaves. ]

head basket bring place sheaves do

cpd

cpd

121A0

1230F

cpd

cpd sag-ga2 head basket

cpd e3 UD-DU leave go out thread

121A0 KI earth KIENGIR

1230E U

cpd mu-ak do

cpd txt sang sag-ga2 head basket

e3

ki

garadin9

mu-ak

head basket

12295 sag head

+ 120B7 ga2 basket

bring

12313 UD sun + 1207A DU leave, bring

place

sheaf

/ bundle (of reeds)

to do

1222C MU name + 1201D AK do

112. gi-dub-ba kug NE-a šu im-mi-du8

[ETCSL: She held a stylus of refined silver in her hand,]

stylus silver refined hand proudly displayed

cpd

121AC

cpd

122D7

cpd

cpd gi-dub-ba stylus

121AC KU3 KUG pure GUSHKIN gold

cpd NE-A refine

122D7 SHU hand

cpd im-mi-du8 spread

gi-dub-ba

kug

NE-A

šu

im-mi-du8

(reed tablet) stylus

12100 GI reed stem + 1207E DUB tablet + 12040 BA divide tool

silver, shiny metal

refined

12248 NE brazier + 12000 A water

hand

(proudly) display

1214E IM mood,

is (copula) + 1222A MI black [cf miqtum (high) class?] + 120EE (/12083) du8 (GABA); spread

http://cdli.ox...c217.112

113. dub mul-an dug3-ga im-mi-gal2

[ETCSL: and placed it on a tablet with propitious stars,]

tablet cosmic star good ones classified

1207E

cpd

cpd

cpd

1207E DUB clay tablet DUBSAR

cpd MUL-AN heavenly star 33x

cpd dug3-ga good

cpd im-mi-gal2 placed

dub

mul-an

dug3-ga

im-mi-gal2

tablet

cosmic star

1202F MUL star + 1202D AN cosmic

good ones

1212D dug3 good

+ 120B5 GA suckling, carry

classified

1214E IM mood,

(copula) + 1222A MI black, high ?? + 12145 gal2 place class ?? cf. mi-iq-tum (miqtum, mi-gal2-tum) social class

..

114. ad im-dab6-gi4-gi4

[ECSL: and was consulting it."]

recited (mantra) turning round and round

1201C

cpd

1201C AD

cpd im-dab6-gi4-gi4 turn around

ad

im-dab6-gi4-gi4

voice,

cry, recited (mantra) ??

turning round and round

1214E IM mood, (copula)

1234F dab6 go around, + 12104 gi4 x2

turn, go around [gi4 x 2 therefore:

'turn round and round' ??]

..

ETCSL:

“Then there was a woman — whoever she was.

She …… sheaves [bundles].

She held a stylus of refined silver in her hand,

and placed it on a tablet with propitious stars, and was consulting it.”

..

110. munus 1(DIŠ)-am3a-ba me-a nu a-ba me-a-ni

111. sag-ga2e3ki garadin9mu-ak 112. gi-dub-ba kug NE-a šu im-mi-du8 113. dub mul-an dug3-ga im-mi-gal2 114. ad im-dab6-gi4-gi4

ccc

Very Common Signs

ccc1

1228F

1224C

1231D

1222C

12326

120B5

1228F strike

1224C NI ZAL oil fat

1231D UM reed rope

1222C MU year

12326 UN UG3 people ug sag gig-ga

120B5 GA suckling young milk cow

RA

NI

UM

MU

UN

GA

1228F RA (rah2)

kill; flood; aux.

1224C NI (i3) comes to pass; quiver

1231D UM approach, disease

1222C MU (gu10) year, dear, name, son, phallus

43667x!

12326 UN people (KALAM / Sumer)

120B5 GA suckling, carry, bring

..

12157

12261

12154

1214E

12220

12248

12157 KA INIM word thing DU DUG4 speak ZU2 tooth

12261 NU not nonexistent

12154 IN

1214E IM

12220 MA

12248 NE

dug4

NU

IN

IM